A Woman Learning Thai...and some men too ;)

Learn Thai Language & Thai Culture

Tag: Bingo Lingo (page 1 of 2)

Please Vote THAI | 2017: Top 100 Language Lovers Competition

Top 100 Language Lovers of 2017

Pleeeeease vote Thai…

Top Language Lovers 2017The Top 100 Language Lovers Competition is here once again! If you want to get straight to voting, just click the logo to the right.

The Top 100 Language Lovers Competition, hosted by the amazing team from bab.la and Lexiophiles, is where WLT pits Thai against other languages such as English, Chinese, French, German, etc. Scary.

When the call goes out, almost a thousand blogs, twitter accounts, Facebook pages and YouTube accounts are submitted to the hardworking competition team who then whittle the count down to a mere 100 in each section.

This year five Thai resources made the cut: Language Learning Blogs (A Women Learning Thai), Language Facebook Pages (Learn Thai with พร, Thai Language Hut, Wondrous Thai), Language Twitter Accounts (0 Thai entries), and Language YouTube Channels (Adam Bradshaw).

Competition rules: You get one vote per section (for a total of four votes).

I hope you can help out as every vote for Thai puts the Thai language that bit closer to the top. Ta in advance!

And now for WLT’s FREE Thai giveaways…

In past Language Lovers Competitions I’ve celebrated with free draws but for WLT’s ninth year, I wanted to do something different. Instead of a select few winners getting free stuff, thanks to the sponsors below, everyone will be a winner.

PickupThai Podcast: Anki flashcard decks to go with select courses. Each lesson comes with two decks (Thai script and transliteration). Audio included in the decks.

Duke Language School and Arthit: One chapter from each of Duke’s Journey books (1-3) created by Arthit. Bingo-Lingo’s DLS String Method from Arthit’s Read Thai In 10 Days ebook. Audio downloads included with both.

Paiboon Publishing: Audio files for Benjawan Becker’s Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced vocabulary lists (mentioned on WLT’s Thai Frequency Lists with English Definitions).

L-Lingo: 1000 top Thai words with sentences from their recent course update (English, Thai script, and transliteration). Audio downloads included.

Learn Thai with พร: Compilation of Wannaporn Muangkham’s popular series, 65 Thai Useful Thai Phrases You Won’t find in a Phrasebook. Audio downloads included.

Quick & Dirty Thai: I’ve also taken this opportunity to update Quick & Dirty Thai. And yes, audio downloads will be included here as well.

And there you have it – plenty of free stuff for everyone.

Please vote Thai…

Top Language Lovers 2017If you haven’t voted please click on the TLL (Top 100 Language Lovers) competition logo to your right. Thanks in advance!

Share Button

2016 WINNERS: Bingo-Lingo’s Read Thai in 10 Days

WLTs Thai Language Giveaway

Welcome to the THIRD week of WLT’s seven weeks of Thai Language Giveaways. The Language Giveaways are a part of the Language Lovers Competition. The LLC is now over – the results and a huge THANK YOU from me are in my post, Thank You for Voting: Top Language Lovers of 2016.

Chosen by Arthit (Bingo-Lingo), here are the winners of Read Thai in 10 Days:

Hello everyone, thank you for sharing your experience in learning Thai and expressing your interest in my book. I appreciate your participation and hope the winners get the most out of Read Thai in 10 Days!

And the winners are … FABIAN, BERNARD, MATTHEW and PETER!

Congratulations to all of you for winning Read Thai in 10 Days by Bingo-Lingo (with audio). In fact, you are going to receive the 2ND EDITION of my book with a new cover as well! I have rewritten the chapters about Thai tone and devised something I call ‘DLS string method’ to help you visualise the tones rules for those who prefer picturing than memorising rules. Please tell me how you find my new method and give me feedback :-)

Happy learning! Bingo, Author of RTITD

Winners, if you would please send your addresses via WLT’s contact form we’ll get the books to you asap. Again, congrats!

Bingo, thank you so much for sponsoring the THIRD week of WLT’s giveaway. And lucky them, to get your second edition (I’m envious!) My thanks also go to those leaving comments – be sure to come back for more (there’s plenty more).

Note: To get a list of the coming prizes please read the first post in the series, Vote THAI and WIN! | SEVEN Weeks of FREE Thai Giveaways.

The SET Foundation would appreciate our help…

As previously mentioned, the SET Foundation seriously needs our help this year. Did you know that…

SET was originally established to help just one needy student (Seckson) study for a Bachelor degree in Physics. With SET support, he went on to gain a Masters and a PhD. Dr Seckson is now director of the Institute of Fundamental Studies at Naresuan University.

If you can, please donate to The SET Foundation by filling out the Paypal button at the top right of their site. Thanks in advance :)

Share Button

WLT’s 2016 Thai Language Giveaway: Bingo-Lingo’s Read Thai in 10 Days

WLTs Thai Language Giveaway

WLT’s 2016 Thai Language Giveaway…

Here we are at week THREE of WLT’s seven weeks of Thai language giveaways! If you don’t know what’s going on be sure to read Vote THAI and WIN! | SEVEN Weeks of FREE Thai Giveaways. There are prizes galore.

Bingo-Lingo: Read Thai in 10 Days…

Bingo-Lingo (Arthit Juyaso), is giving away FOUR copies of his detailed book and CD, Read Thai in 10 Days.

Thai national Bingo is an author, linguist, translator, and popular guest writer at WLT. Not only is he the principal of Duke Language School, he’s also responsible for the fantastic course materials at Duke. Dissatisfied with how the Thai alphabet is being taught to expats, and influenced by his studies in linguistics, he came up with the method taught in his well written book, Read Thai in Ten Days.

Learn to Read Thai in Ten DaysRead Thai in 10 Days
Author: Arthit Juyaso (Bingo-Lingo)
Price: $17.99 (orig $49.99)
Paperback + audio files: 170 pages
 

I wrote an overview in Learn to Read the Thai Alphabet in 2 Weeks, 10 Days, 60 Minutes, but here are the main selling points from Arthit:

Simplification: Many Thai script teaching courses don’t handle rules well. For example, the tone rules. Instead of using bloated tables or cumbersome-looking tone flow charts, RTITD organises tone rules into one principle (plus the default tone for each tone mark) and three exceptions. The course also has a different take on Thai vowels. RTITD simplifies the ‘traditional’ number of vowels from 32 vowels (plus 10 vowel changes) to 22 vowels (4 of which have two forms), and treats vowel shortening and vowel-less words as separate.

Understanding: People may forget what they remember, but they will never forget what they understand! RTITD doesn’t rely on sheer effort to purely memorise individual character’s sounds when at initial and final position, it tells you WHY they are the way they are. The course also explains the nature of the Thai phonological system, that there are no unreleased finals, and which initial sound will become which final sounds, and much more.

Organisation: By prioritising what’s essential, the entire course is carefully structured in such a way that makes sense. Lesson by lesson, what learners have previously studied is repeated and combined with the new materials being introduced.

For reading skill reinforcement, the approach draws from the principles of spaced repetition. Words chosen for the reading practice exercises are not random, but appropriately distributed throughout the course. Using this method, students quickly gain confidence in their ability to read Thai.

Website: Read Thai in 10 Days
Facebook: Read Thai Language
YouTube: Read Thai in 10 Days
Twitter: @readthai

Rules for WLTs Thai Language Giveaway…

The rules are simple:

  • To be included in the draw, leave comments below.
  • Comment(s) need to add to the conversation (it really does matter).
  • Each relevant comment gets counted, so please leave as many as you like!
  • If you don’t collect your prize within a week of the announcement, it will be given away to the next person in line.

Arthit will choose the winners, so don’t worry if you’ve known me for yaks ages, you can still win. And it doesn’t matter if you’ve won before, you can keep entering.

The draw will run from now until 12 June (Sunday), 6pm Thai time. After the winners have been selected I’ll leave a comment below as well as create a dedicated post.

Thank you Arthit for sponsoring WLT’s eight year celebration!

Share Button

Vote THAI and WIN! | SEVEN Weeks of FREE Thai Giveaways

Top 100 Language Lovers of 2015

Just like last year’s Language Lovers Competition, this year fabulous sponsors supporting the Thai industry have again donated products. Thanks all!

PickupThai Podcast (24th-29th May): SIX winners will get subscriptions to the new Creamy Coconut course for beginners (One winner – all 30 lessons. Two winners – 15 lessons. Three winners – 10 lessons).

Duke Language School (31st May-5th June): TWO 60 hour Journey One group lessons with course books. This is not a taster, the winners go straight through the course to the end.

Bingo-Lingo (7th-12th June): FOUR copies of Bingo’s detailed book and CD, Read Thai in 10 Days.

Learn Thai Style (14th-19th June): FOUR Speak Thai Course winners (includes a pre-release version of Speak Thai Course with Thai script only – no transliteration) will receive a lifetime access to over 40 hours of audio and video materials, over 300 worksheets (with or without transliteration), online quizzes, self study materials, learn Thai blog access, as well as access to over 700 trained teachers (UK, USA, Singapore, Thailand and Skype).

Learn Thai from a White Guy (21st-26th June): TWO courses of Learn to Read Thai in 2 Weeks and TWO courses of The Need to Know Sentence Pack.

Learn Thai Podcast (5th-10th July): THREE subscriptions to learn to speak, read, write Thai via LTP’s massive Thai course that has over 800 video, audio and text lessons.

Paiboon Publishing and Word in the Hand (12th-17th July): FOUR EACH of the newly updated Talking Thai-Eng-Thai Dictionary apps (your choice of iOS or Android).

Giveaway Rules:

  1. Leave as many relevant comments as you like (with a stress on ‘relevant’).
  2. Comment on as many of the giveaways as you want (there is no limit on how many prizes you can win).
  3. Claim your prize before the week is out (unclaimed prizes will go to the next in line).

Each post will go live on Tuesdays at 7.30am Thai time and will close out on Sundays at 6pm Thai time.

Note: Those donating will be responsible for choosing the winners so even if you are my buddy you too can win!

Vote Thai…

Vote the Top 100 Language Learning Blogs 2016If you haven’t voted yet, please click on the Top 100 Language Learning Blogs button to your right. Thanks in advance!

Share Button

Thai Time: Using Pronouns Like a Pro (Part 1: How to Say ‘I’ in Thai)

Bingo Lingo

Using pronouns like a pro…

“I” for males is ผม /pǒm/ and for females is ดิฉัน /dichán/, “you” is คุณ /kun/, and “he” and “she” are เค้า /káo/. Every student knows that. Every student uses these. That’s how the Thais do it. Or do they?

One of the blessings of the English language is the ease of the choice of pronouns. It is generally agreed that there are 7: I, we, you, he, she, it and they (we’ll put vernacular variations such as “one”, “y’all”, “youse” aside). There are only 3 factors that govern the choice of these pronouns: person (1st, 2nd, or 3rd), number (singular or plural) and sex (masculine, feminine, or non-human neuter).

And that’s it. “I” will always be “I” no matter who “I” am. “You” will always be “you” whether “you” are a president or a beggar. However, if you have even a little bit of knowledge of the Thai language, you must have at least heard that there are OODLES more pronouns than just 7. If a learner asks “How do you translate the pronoun XXX into Thai?”, they will get something like this as a result:

Bingo Lingo

The tabulated mess above is caused by the Thai pronoun system which reflects the interconnected relationships amongst Thai people. Thai people’s choice of pronouns is NEVER absolute; they will choose a pronoun that suits the situation and the relationship between them and the person they’re speaking to. They can refer to themselves and others in many different ways.

Bingo LingoAt this point, you would probably think, “Yeah, it’s all well and lovely that Thai language is so profound, I get it, but please just give me one word for each English pronoun to use, just one word!” After doing some quick look-up on your favourite phrasebook, your wish is granted:

And I think that these equivalents are a good place to start. When you start learning a language, no one wants to have the entire grammar book shoved down their throat. You tear off each page, chew, swallow, and digest. These words are perfectly functional and will get the job done. However, learners will benefit greatly from the ability to shuffle between different pronouns appropriately, as the ability to do so is another milestone that will move you up a few steps from “poot Thai daai nit noi”, and you will convince Thai people you have an understanding not only of their language but of Thailand’s social structure, which encourages Thais to speak to you in Thai. If you sound natural then Thais will think you ‘get’ them.

But before we go into each individual word, let’s look at some of the factors that influence the choice of pronouns.

Factors that govern the choice of Thai pronouns…

This is a deep, hard, complex subject to touch upon. I do not dare to claim I have it all figured out and certainly cannot provide you the perfect formulae for the choice of pronouns. It seems there are countless variables at work when it comes to this, but I can give you what I think of as the most important for determining your relationship with whomever you’re conversing with. So here goes:

Person: This factor is universal for all languages, not just Thai. The 1st person is the speaker (or yourself in this case), the 2nd person is the person you are speaking to, and the 3rd person is the person you mention while speaking to the 2nd person.

Sex: Obviously. Some pronouns can tell you the gender of the person being referred to. Everyone knows ผม /pǒm/ is for male and ดิฉัน /dichán/ is for female. However, a lot of Thai pronouns can be used to refer to either sex, such as เขา /káo/ which can either refer to the male or female 3rd person.

Formality: The situation or circumstance people are in restricts the way in which they refer to one other. You might call your friend such obscene nicknames in private, but when you refer to him during a formal quarterly meeting—for whatever reason—you will most definitely have to refer to him as ‘Mr. (followed by surname)’. Formality also comes from your audience. Rude nicknames that you give to your friend can’t be used when both of you are talking to your university professor. A respected individual brings about a formal air wherever they go, so take that into account.

Respect: In Thailand, you would want to express your modesty to people who are ranked high in the social hierarchy, be it through age, authority, or other criteria. This can be done in two ways: address the listener or the mentioned individual with a respectful pronoun and/or refer to yourself with a humble pronoun. Beware however, as excessive reverence can be seen as sarcasm.

Politeness: A lot of people seem to mix this one up with the respect factor. Being polite means that you’re following social norms because you want to show the world that you’re good-mannered and educated, while being respectful means that you want to display some kind of reverence to a particular individual because society dictates that they deserve it. Politeness is more about ‘expressing your virtue’ but respect is more about ‘expressing your subservience’.

Familiarity: You wouldn’t call a guy you just met ‘Toby Boo Boo’. That would be such an egregious violation of personal space. This factor is not really apparent in English, but in Romance languages there are pronouns designated for different levels of intimacy: tu-vous in French, tú-usted in Spanish, and so on (for reference: “T-V distinction” by Brown & Gilman, 1960). In Thai, there are also pronouns you reserve for people you don’t know well and pronouns you exclusively use with those you are close to.

Please note that I’m missing the ‘Number’ factor from this article, because most pronouns in Thai can be used to refer to a single person or a group of people. If you must express that you’re referring to more than just 1 person, you can stick the พวก /pûak-/ prefix in front of that pronoun. However, the reality is that Thai people do not use it that much and I imagine if you’re here reading this, you want to speak like a native speaker, not the Thai language that follows English’s grammatical rules (the only exception being เรา /rao/ which I’ll talk about in the pronoun list).

There is also another important factor: ‘Moods & attitudes’. Our state of mind and our attitude towards people or things are reflected in our speech. This is how humans can read each other; through their rhetoric. You know your Mum is in a good mood when you’re referred to as ‘Ben honey’ and you know her wrath is about to rain down upon you when that turns to ‘Benjamin’. However, we’re not going to talk much about it in this article because of its complicated nature. For instance, some forms of moods can change the speaker’s intention entirely. To give you an example, while the word คุณ /kun/ shows politeness [+polite], it implies that you and the person you’re speaking to are not that close [-intimate]. However, if it’s meant as a sarcasm or irony towards your friend (like when you’re being extra polite to your best friend as a joke), suddenly it is not polite [-polite] but very familiar [+intimate]. As you can see, this is going to be problematic for our simplistic, box-ticking method, so I’ll leave it out until someone cares enough to do a proper analysis on it.

How to say ‘I’ in Thai…

With the factors explained above combined, you can read through this list to see what attributes each pronoun has. I’ll also give a short description and concrete examples of interpersonal and situational context where the pronoun may be deemed appropriate. If that factor has blank (-) at any pronoun, it means that that factor isn’t really relevant and the pronoun can be used in either situation.

In this post, we’ll take a look at the 1st person pronouns first.

Some 1st person pronouns also have a counterpart which is normally used in the 2nd person as its pair. I’ll note which word each pronoun is paired with, if any.

Let’s start!

ผม /pŏm/
Person: 1st
Sex: Male
Formality: Yes
Respectful: Yes
Polite: Yes
Familiar: No

If you’re a guy, you’ve probably used this word hundreds of time by now. This very convenient male pronoun for men can be used with pretty much everyone and will never offend anyone. However, keep in mind that ผม /pǒm/ carries an air of formality, so while it is a nice little polite word, it can also sound stuffy when using with friends.

  • When to use: Pretty much with everyone e.g. teacher, older people, younger people that you don’t know well, in a (mature) relationship, strangers, acquaintances, etc.
  • When not to use: Probably with close friends or with friends you want to get close to.
  • Paired pronoun: คุณ /kun/

ดิฉัน /dichán/
Person: 1st
Sex: Female
Formality: VERY
Respectful: Yes
Polite: Yes
Familiar: HELL NO

I can’t think of many pronouns that are more official-sounding than ดิฉัน /dichán/. While it is true that it’s polite and you’ll never offend anyone with it, it sounds frighteningly distant and is rarely used among people who have any kind of relationship of any degree of familiarity with each other rather than professional. Thai teachers use it a lot in Thai classrooms because it’s easy to teach, but in reality you’ll only hear this word from Thai females in situations which they consider formal, such as in meetings with clients, in interviews, making a speech. Some female friends of mine say they have never even used this word in their lives!

For female learners who want to sound natural, I suggest you find another strategy, such as referring to yourself by name (I know, some of you think it’s silly, but hey, that’s what we do).

  • When to use: Dealing with Thai officials, people you have a professional relationship with, being interviewed, with strangers, etc.
  • When not to use: In any situation that requires solidarity. Not with your friends, partner, partner’s family, colleagues, bosses, or anyone you wish to love you.
  • Paired pronoun: คุณ /kun/

ฉัน /chán/
Person: 1st
Sex: Mostly female
Formality: –
Respectful: Sometimes no
Polite: –
Familiar: Yes

ฉัน /chán/ is a funny one—it is considered a default ‘I’ pronoun, this is why you’ll hear this word used a lot in songs and literature. In real life, it is commonly used by females in informal situations, but can also be used by men as well, especially when talking to females of equal or lower status. Many male learners think this word is exclusively feminine and are reluctant to use it. It’s a fun word to use with female friends who you are close to!

Another myth I want to debunk, there is nothing polite about the word ฉัน /chán/. If anything, with a sharp tone of voice and a wrong attitude, it makes you sound arrogant! It’s not impolite, it’s just not polite either.

  • When to use: Talking to friends of the opposite sex, people who do not mind you being a bit cheeky to them.
  • When not to use: When you need to be extremely polite. Certainly not with people of higher status, such as doctor, monks, university professors. Probably not even with your Thai teachers, unless they don’t mind. (Chances are they won’t, because they’re the one teaching this word to you!)
  • Paired pronoun: เธอ /ter/

เรา /rao/
Person: 1st
Sex: Both
Formality: –
Respectful: No
Polite: –
Familiar: Somewhat

If you look up a dictionary you’ll see เรา /rao/ being translated as ‘we’ in English, but in fact this word is often used as singular. (Think of the royal singular ‘we’, it’s not the same but you get the point.) This nice little word is very versatile—both male and female speakers can use it with almost everyone around the same age or younger, as long as the circumstance doesn’t require you to be formal.

  • When to use: Talking to friends or acquaintances of the same age. Pretty much with anyone who isn’t older or who doesn’t have a higher social status.
  • When not to use: With older people or people you should be showing respect to.

หนู /nǔu/
Person: 1st
Sex: Mostly female
Formality: –
Respectful: Yes Polite: Yes
Familiar: Somewhat

The literal meaning of หนู /nǔu/ is ‘rat, mouse’. The metaphorical use of this word as a pronoun expresses deference towards the listener who is of a higher status or deserves respect; calling yourself a rat surely makes anyone feel small! It is normally used by females when talking to their parents, older relatives, teachers, bosses or more senior colleagues, although some small boys may use this word when talking to their parents as well. (In which case they generally drop this use when they’re older—or not, I know a few male adult ‘rats’!)

This word is a good word to show respect to older Thais while sounding friendly as well. At first they might be surprised when female foreigners try to use this word. I say keep at it, if you want to win over their heart.

  • When to use: You’re female and you want to show respect and win favour from older Thais.
  • When not to use: You’re male. (unless you want people to second-guess your sexual orientation.)

กู /guu/
Person: 1st
Sex: –
Formality: HELL NO
Respectful: HELL NO
Polite: HELL NO
Familiar: VERY
*VULGAR*

Years ago before the polite pronouns had been invented, กู /guu/ used to be the default pronoun for ‘I’. Everybody used it, including kings. Nowadays it is considered a profanity. The only context in which this would be acceptable to use is with your really close friends to express intimacy, and even then you mustn’t use it in the presence of a respected audience; you can call yourself กู /guu/ with a friend who doesn’t mind that, but if your professor is there too then their presence will automatically create an environment where only polite language is allowed. Violate this and prepare to be scolded, or at least judged!

Also, if you try and use this word with people you’re not close to, it will immediately be interpreted as a provocation. For a nation that avoids confrontation at all cost, provocation is a serious issue for Thais! No matter how angry you are with anyone, do not attempt to use กู /guu/ and มึง /mueng/ with them unless you’re prepared to handle the ramifications that may follow… it can turn pretty ugly, in my experience.

I say avoid using this word until your Thai proficiency is right up there first. Don’t run before you can walk, don’t swear before you can talk.

On a side note, males tend to use this word more than females but it is not really an uncommon thing to hear Thai females using it any more, if they feel comfortable enough with their company.

  • When to use: Very limited use. With close friends (only when they initiate it, and only when respected individuals are not around).
  • When not to use: When you’re not sure you can get out of it alive.
  • Paired pronoun: มึง /mueng/

ข้า /kâa/
Person: 1st
Sex: –
Formality: No
Respectful: No
Polite: No
Familiar: VERY
*VULGAR*

Similar to กู /guu/ above, this one is also considered vulgar, although it is nowhere near as vulgar as กู /guu/. However ข้า /kâa/ sounds quite archaic for the 21st century. Its implication is that the speaker is of an older generation or that he or she comes from quite a remote part of Thailand. You’ll see this word a lot in old literature or in stories set in the past. Granted, there are people still using this word, but it’s not really a fashionable word people use today. It’d be an odd choice of pronoun for non-native speakers, dost thou not agree?

  • When to use: Never? Unless you’re writing a Thai epic novel.
  • When not to use: When you’re not writing a Thai epic novel.
  • Paired pronoun: เอ็ง /eng/

ข้าพเจ้า /kâapajâao/
Person: 1st
Sex: –
Formality: VERY
Respectful: –
Polite: Yes
Familiar: HELL NO
*FROZEN REGISTER*

The use of ข้าพเจ้า /kâapajâao/ is restricted only to the ‘frozen register’—the level of language that is highly ceremonial and unchanging, often in one-directional communication style, such as formal speeches, pledges, contracts or declarations, etc. Therefore, normally you’ll only see it written, not said.

  • When to use: Drafting a speech or a housing lease.
  • When not to use: In general two-way communication.

อั๊ว /úa’/
Person: 1st
Sex: –
Formality: No
Respectful: No
Polite: No
Familiar: Yes
*CHINESE ORIGIN*

This word comes from the Teochew word我 [ua˥˨] (I). This word is used mainly by people of Teochew ancestry who migrated to Siam/Thailand throughout its history. As the influence of the Chinese-Thai grew, ethnic Thais also started picking up Chinese words to use in their speech as well.

In Chinese-Thai families where the Chinese identity is still strong, code-mixing between Thai and Chinese is very common and it is perfectly fine and inoffensive, but when spoken by Thai people (who have no Teochew background) this word can be off-putting because it has a harsh, angry tone to it. This is not to mention it might also confuse your listener, because why would you use a word of Teochew Chinese origin when speaking Thai?

  • When to use: When you’re Chinese-Thai.
  • When not to use: When you’re not Chinese-Thai.
  • Paired pronoun: ลื้อ /lúe/

เค้า /káo/
Person: 1st
Sex: Mostly female
Formality: No
Respectful: –
Polite: –
Familiar: Yes
*LOVERSPEAK*

Confused? You should be. Me too. This word is originally a 3rd person pronoun, but you might have witnessed overt Thai lovebirds referring to themselves by this word. เค้า /káo/ as a 1st person pronoun is largely used by Thai females who have a ‘sweet girl’ personality. You know, lovely and cute and naive. They won’t just use it with anyone either, it has to be their close friends, boyfriend or husband. This pronoun, used in this way, expresses the speaker’s affection towards the listener, albeit a little nauseating. So it’s a good thing! I guess…

  • When to use: Should you use this word? No. At least save it for when talking to your boyfriend/girlfriend only.
  • When not to use: Need I say more?
  • Paired pronoun: ตัวเอง /dtua-eeng/

…And that was just the words for “I”! In my next post, Thai time: Using pronouns like a pro (Part 2: What should I call ‘you’), in addition to the factors we’ve learnt in this post we’ll also explore the crucial concept of ‘social status’ and how to apply that to addressing Thai people appropriately. It’s not as straightforward as in English, but at least I hope you’ll find it interesting.

Until next time!

(Bingo) Arthit Juyaso
Principal of Duke Language School
My book on reading Thai fast: Read Thai in 10 Days

Share Button

Thai Time: Thai Sentence Expansion Drills

Bingo Lingo

Thai Sentence Expansion Drills…

The idea for this brief post came from Aaron Myers’ handy Language Learning Tip: Sentence Expansion Drills (see his post for further explanation). For sure, it’s a quick way to increase your Thai skills!

How It Works: You can do sentence expansion drills in a lot of different ways. The simplest is to just have these sorts of conversations with yourself about the things you see around you. You could also do this drill on paper. Another great way to do these sorts of drills is to do them with a native speaker.

Using this method, below are sample sentences. Added words have been underlined.

–>> And please don’t panic. Pdf files with and without transliteration are in the downloads below. Audio downloads are included.

ฉันไปโรงเรียน
I go to school.


ฉันชอบไปโรงเรียน
I like going to school.


ฉันชอบไปเรียนที่โรงเรียน
I like going to study at school.


ฉันชอบไปเรียนภาษาไทยที่โรงเรียน
I like going to study Thai at school


ฉันชอบขี่จักรยานไปเรียนภาษาไทยที่โรงเรียน
I like riding a bicycle to go to study Thai at school.


ฉันกับเพื่อนชอบขี่จักรยานไปเรียนภาษาไทยที่โรงเรียน
My friend and I like riding bicycles to go to study Thai at school.


ฉันกับเพื่อนคนจีนชอบขี่จักรยานไปเรียนภาษาไทยที่โรงเรียน
My Chinese friend and I like riding bicycles to go to study Thai at school.


ฉันกับเพื่อนคนจีนชอบขี่จักรยานไปเรียนภาษาไทยที่โรงเรียนทุกเช้า
My Chinese friend and I like riding bicycles to go to study Thai at school every morning.


ฉันกับเพื่อนคนจีนชอบขี่จักรยานไปเรียนภาษาไทยที่โรงเรียนทุกเช้าวันเสาร์อาทิตย์
My Chinese friend and I like riding bicycles to go to study Thai at school every Saturday and Sunday morning.


ฉันกับเพื่อนคนจีนไม่ชอบขี่จักรยานไปเรียนภาษาไทยที่โรงเรียนทุกเช้าวันเสาร์อาทิตย์
My Chinese friend and I don’t like riding bicycles to go to study Thai at school every Saturday and Sunday morning


 

Tips and rules…

1. Thai is an SVO language; the word order is subject-verb-object.

2. In Thai, adjectives come after nouns, e.g. เพื่อนคนจีน (friend human-China) “a Chinese friend”.

3. When using multiple verbs in one sentence, you can often just “stack” them up without using any connector, e.g. ฉันชอบไปเรียน (I like go study) “I like to go to study”.

4. When doing sentence expansion drill in Thai, it’s easier start from the core components first (nouns & verbs) and then use descriptive words such as adjectives and adverbs (time, place & manner) to expand sentences.

Downloads: Thai Sentence Expansion Drills…

Thai Sentence Expansion Drills (pdf with transliteration): 174kb
Thai Sentence Expansion Drills (pdf without transliteration): 170kb
Thai Sentence Expansion Drills (audio): 796kb

Note: These files are for personal use only (please do not place them on other websites).

Until next time!

(Bingo) Arthit Juyaso
Principal of Duke Language School
My book on reading Thai fast: Read Thai in 10 Days

Share Button

Thanking the Sponsors of WLTs 2015 Thai Language Giveaway

Thai Language

WLT’s 2015 Thai Language Giveaway…

Was that a wonderful seven weeks, or what? Overall, US$4500 in prizes were given away by: Stu Jay Raj (Jcademy), Duke (Duke Language School), Bingo-Lingo (Read Thai in 10 Days), Jo and Jay (Learn Thai Podcast), Tom and Kruu Jiab (Learn Thai Style), Benjawan Poomsan Becker (Paiboon Publishing), Chris Pirazzi (Word in the Hand), Yuki and Miki (PickupThai Podcast), James Higbie and David Smyth via Danny at DCO Thai and Orchid Press.

Wow. And thank you! You’ve all made this the best giveaway ever.

The sponsors in WLT’s 2015 Thai Language Giveaway were chosen because they are at the top of their field. They create materials with Thai that you will actually use, and also have a longtime commitment to the learning Thai industry.

Curious about what’s coming next, I bugged each for a final time (final, for now) to let us know what we can expect in the future.

Jcademy: We are in some exciting times at Jcademy. I have spent the past 20 years in the education and training industry. Most of that was running face to face training programmes with clients in training facilities – either their own facility, ours, or we would rent a training room at a hotel. While I love soaking up the energy of the participants while I am running my programmes face to face, doing that day in and day out can be exhausting.

Ten years ago, I didn’t believe that the technologies available could address the customised issues that I faced with each of my clients and frankly speaking, the course authoring and Learning Management System (LMS) technology that was available was limited and in many cases quite clunky. Now, technology and bandwidth has caught up I have found that with the technology that is readily available now, I can create truly interactive learning modules that can be deployed on any device that really help learners to learn and develop new skills through repetition and testing.

At Jcademy we have built a platform that supports these technologies. We are presently working with companies and people that have knowledge that might have traditionally been held in only their heads, in books or training manuals and we are helping them to convert them to rich, interactive training solutions that can be monetised, localised and opened up to new markets that they wouldn’t have had access to in the past.

Using our platform, people with truly wonderful content can now spend their time doing what they do best, and those who have great business and marketing skills can use the tools that we have to run and grow their training and education based businesses, reducing the need to create any more new content that they have to.

Duke Language School and Bingo-Lingo (Arthit Juyaso): At Duke Language School, our aim is to give expats and foreign residents an alternative to the other teaching materials and methods, some of which have never undergone change for nearly 50 years. Right now we are working diligently to create entirely new Thai courses to suit the modern Thailand: “Journey Survival 1-2-3”, “Journey Conversational 1-2-3”, and “Journey Fluency 1-2-3”, are the backbone of our Thai programmes that focus on communication which focus on natural Thai that Thai people actually speak, practical language that is more relevant to everyone’s life in Thailand, and engaging classrooms taught by professional teachers who know how to make the class fun (I have personally trained them). These courses can be taken in conjunction to “Explore 1-5”, Thai reading and writing course, so the students can learn how to speak, read and write all at the same time to maximise their learning experience. Each course lasts 24 hours, 2 hours a day, so it’s long enough for our students to learn a lot of useful stuff but not too long to make them bored. Our upper-intermediate and advanced course are also undergoing a lot of changes and eventually we will have all the courses suitable for everyone learning Thai. On top of that, we are also working days and nights to develop fully interactive online courses which can be accessed by students as stand-alone platforms or as supplementary to their physical classes.

As for my own book, Read Thai in 10 Days by Bingo-Lingo, it has enjoyed positive feedback so far. Considering it my first ever published book, I’m very chuffed :-) So in the future, after I’m done with creating the Journey courses I have plans to write more books about Thai language, and improve RTITD to be better than ever. In the meantime, I will also write articles on Women Learn Thai, and perhaps drop in the Farang Can Learn Thai FB group to help out learners, as I always have. So many ideas so little time! Thank you everyone for your support, in return I will give back to the community as much as I can.

Learn Thai Podcast: We are currently working new Thai culture content and also some ways to get even the most unmotivated people to learn some basic Thai.

Learn Thai Style: The future at Thai Style Language is looking very busy! We have a LOT going on and some huge plans for future development. Some of our plans include new teacher locations with Australia. Kruu Jiab is very busy concentrating on the second edition of the Speak Thai Course (level 1) as well as a Thai script only edition. The Speak Thai Course level 2 has been planned out and development has started. Our Upper Intermediate Course is constantly being added to. New blog posts are being created weekly and new teachers added daily! 

And remember, if you are a registered learner or teacher you will always get access to new updates for no extra cost! Happy learning and we look forward to being a part of your Thai language experience.

Paiboon Publishing and Word in the Hand: We are nearing completion of a massive 2.0 upgrade to the Talking Thai-Eng-Thai dictionary app that has been more than two years in the making. This upcoming free 2.0 upgrade will include thousands of new Thai words suggested by users, thousands of complete, ready-to-use customizable phrases divided into 200+ practical categories like “Hotel,” “Ordering Food,” “Renting a Place,” and “Price Haggling,” a Favorites feature that lets you save and organize words and phrases you are learning, full-text search that lets you find words in the middle of phrases, and a complete rewrite of the internals of the app that will allow us to issue more frequent cross-platform upgrades in the future. 

The Thai for Beginners app v2.0 will include these new features: increase size of text, turn off English text, Play All will play all phrases in a lesson, and added English voice to allow Thai speakers to practice their English pronunciation. Android update available now, iOS update in September 2015.

PickupThai Podcast: We hope you guys have been enjoying our two podcast series, Sweet Green and Spicy Red. For total beginners, we have great news for you. We’ll start a new course that’s going to be a perfect fit for you in a few months. Plus, our newly designed website will be launched soon. It will be packed with lots of free and fun lessons as usual but will be much easier to navigate. We are very excited to show it to you. Like our Facebook page (PickUpThai), follow us on Twitter (@PickupThai) and keep visiting our website if you don’t want to miss any updates.Thank you all for your support. We truly appreciate it.

DCO Books: For those looking for English books published in Thailand, the DCO websites are still a good source. They can also sometimes find those out of print books that others sellers have long stopped stocking. Just use the inquiry form on the website to ask for these hard to find books.

In recent years DCO has offered a publishing service to would be authors. Originally started to help local writers enter the then new ebook market, they now also help with print on demand options, both in Thailand and outside.

Again, my thanks goes to Stu Jay Raj (Jcademy), Duke (Duke Language School), Bingo-Lingo (Read Thai in 10 Days), Jo and Jay (Learn Thai Podcast), Tom and Kruu Jiab (Learn Thai Style), Benjawan Poomsan Becker (Paiboon Publishing), Chris Pirazzi (Word in the Hand), Yuki and Miki (PickupThai Podcast), James Higbie and David Smyth via Danny at DCO Thai and Orchid Press.

You’ve all made this a wonderful seven weeks, and I look forward to how your companies evolve throughout the year!

Posts: WLTs 2015 Thai Language Giveaway…

Here’s the entire list for the series. And what a series it was. Thanks all. Really. It was an amazing good time.

Share Button

Winners: Duke Language School and Bingo-Lingo

WLTs Thai Language Giveaway

WINNERS to WLT’s SIXTH week of the Thai Language Giveaway…

Chosen by Arthit Juyaso (Bingo-Lingo) from Duke Language School and Read Thai in 10 Days, here are the winners for the SIXTH week of the WLT’s seven weeks of Thai Language Giveaways:

Read Thai in 10 Days: Vanna, Joanie, Will, Chel and Celine.
Duke Language School: Will, Celine, Dmitry and Gordon.

If the winners would please send their details via my contact form I’ll take it from there. Note: for the winners of Read Thai in 10 Days I’ll need a working address.

From Arthit:I feel guilty not giving all of you one each! So many nice comments, so few prizes. (I even squeezed an extra prize in for Chel who is already our student at Duke, so please come and claim your prize from me Chel :-)

I’d like to thank everyone for your interest in my RTITD book and our Journey Survival course at DLS. As a polyglot myself, I understand what it’s like to learn a new language, and it’s not always easy. So we would like to add the “fun” part into the classroom to make your learning experience enjoyable. Come to our school and get a free trial lesson and see for yourself.

Thank you Cat for organising this event. Thank you Stu and Tod for your endorsement of our courses and products. And thanks to all WLT readers for your participation!

Thank you Arthit and Duke for joining in the fabulous seven weeks of giveaways. My thanks also go to everyone who left such wonderful comments. You’ve all been great fun.

To get a complete list of the prizes and schedule, read the first post in the series, Please Vote THAI and WIN! 2015: Top 100 Language Lovers Competition.

WLTs 2015 Thai Language Giveaway…

Here are the posts so far in WLT’s Thai Language Giveaway.

And remember, after this there’s still ONE more week of prizes to be given out to celebrate WLT turning seven. Good luck everyone!

Share Button

WLT’s Thai Language Giveaway: Duke Language School and Bingo-Lingo

WLTs Thai Language Giveaway

WLT’s Thai Language Giveaway…

Welcome to week SIX of WLT’s seven weeks of Thai language giveaways by top movers and shakers in the learning Thai industry.

To find out about the $4,500+ in prizes being given away do read the intro post, Please Vote THAI and WIN! 2015: Top 100 Language Lovers Competition.

The previous FIVE giveaway posts by sponsor are: 1) Paiboon Publishing and Word in the Hand, and 2) DCO Books and Orchid Press, and 3) PickupThai Podcast, 4) Learn Thai Podcast, and 5) Learn Thai Style. Once again, congrats to the lucky winners!

WLTs Thai Language Giveaway

Duke Language School and Bingo-Lingo…

This week Duke Language School and Bingo-Lingo (Arthit Juyaso) have joined together to sponsor prizes.

There are FOUR of Duke’s Survival One Group Lessons, which includes the textbook. Also included is free access to the beta version of Duke’s online course, created by Royce Heng.

Note: 1) you need to be in Bangkok to take the course, and 2) you do not have to take it right away.

There are also FOUR copies of Bingo’s detailed book, Read Thai in 10 Days (audio included). For this prize you can be anywhere in the world (we pay for shipping). Good luck!!

WLTs Thai Language Giveaway

Bingo-Lingo: Read Thai in 10 Days….

If you are not located in Bangkok, then Duke’s Survival One Group Lessons will be out of your reach for now. BUT, here’s the good news. Arthit, the author behind Duke’s teaching materials, has also written the terrific Read Thai in 10 Days.

Learn to Read Thai in Ten DaysRead Thai in 10 Days
Author: Arthit Juyaso (Bingo-Lingo)
Price: $17.99 (orig $49.99)
Paperback + audio files: 170 pages

As I’ve already reviewed Read Thai in 10 Days in Learn to Read the Thai Alphabet in 2 Weeks, 10 Days, 60 Minutes, here’s a wee snippet from Arthit:

The selling points of this course are simplification, understanding, and organisation.

Simplification: Many Thai script teaching courses don’t handle rules well. For example, the tone rules. Instead of using bloated tables or cumbersome-looking tone flow charts, RTITD organises tone rules into one principle (plus the default tone for each tone mark) and three exceptions. The course also has a different take on Thai vowels. RTITD simplifies the ‘traditional’ number of vowels from 32 vowels (plus 10 vowel changes) to 22 vowels (4 of which have two forms), and treats vowel shortening and vowel-less words as separate.

Understanding: People may forget what they remember, but they will never forget what they understand! RTITD doesn’t rely on sheer effort to purely memorise individual character’s sounds when at initial and final position, it tells you WHY they are the way they are. The course also explains the nature of the Thai phonological system, that there are no unreleased finals, and which initial sound will become which final sounds, and much more.

Organisation: By prioritising what’s essential, the entire course is carefully structured in such a way that makes sense. Lesson by lesson, what learners have previously studied is repeated and combined with the new materials being introduced.

For reading skill reinforcement, the approach draws from the principles of spaced repetition. Words chosen for the reading practice exercises are not random, but appropriately distributed throughout the course. Using this method, students quickly gain confidence in their ability to read Thai.

Website: Read Thai in 10 Days
Facebook: Read Thai Language
YouTube: Read Thai in 10 Days
Twitter: @readthai

Duke Language School: Survival One Group Lessons….

WLTs Thai Language GiveawayIf your aim is to speak Thai right away, Duke’s Survival lessons, created by Duke’s Principal Arthit Juyaso (Bingo-Lingo), are rich in basic words and phrases that everyone living in Thailand should know.

When going through Survival One I was impressed to discover there are only 300 words to learn. With only a bare minimum of vocabulary, the lessons are jam-packed with useful phrases, sentence patterns and structures. Mentioning it to Arthit, he replied:

One of the main points of the course is to recycle previously seen vocabulary as much as possible (it’s my love for spaced repetition).

Arthit not only knows his stuff, but equally important, he knows how to explain it to westerners. You are just going to love the helpful advice and cultural tidbits dribbled all throughout the course. And yes, it’s real Thai.

Stu Jay Raj (jcademy.com): I searched for months to find Thai language schools in Bangkok that I would feel comfortable affiliating with and being able to recommend to my students of the Thai language regardless of where their level was at. They must be linguistically accurate, dynamic and have a teaching system that really engages their students.

All roads led to Duke. Their team has all the right ingredients of tech savvy, linguistically qualified experienced teachers that really know their stuff.

Their new Journey series fits in very well with CTF and the new upcoming online version that they’re putting together is looking fantastic!

Duke’s Survival lessons (1-3) are for basic beginners. Survival One is included in this giveaway. The Journey series (Conversational 1-3 and Fluency 1-3) focuses on speaking, Explore (1-4) introduces reading and writing, and Connect (1-4) takes it further. All courses require the same amount of time to complete. 

Survival lessons are taught onsite at Duke Language School in Bangkok. Each course is 12 days long, lasting for two hours per lesson. It’s important to note because you will obviously need to be in Bangkok to collect this part of your prize!

Duke’s Survival One Chapter Breakdown:

WLTs Thai Language GiveawayChapter One: Getting started
About the Thai language.
Thai sounds: consonants, vowels, and tones.
Numbers from zero to 100.
Essential words and classroom phrases.

Chapter Two: Meeting and greeting
How to introduce yourself, greet people and say goodbye.
How to talk about your home country and hometown.
How Thai pronouns work.

Chapter Three: Taking a taxi
How to get a taxi and use the service.
Yes-no questions.
How to give simple directions.

Chapter Four: Buying street food
How to ask what something is called.
Buying food from the street.
About different kinds of street food.

Chapter Five: Navigating buildings
How to ask where things are.
How to talk about locations.
The words for places inside a building.

Layout of the lessons: Essential Words (20 words and mini-phrases), Dialogue (cartoons acting out the scenes, then dialogue on its own with transliteration and English, finishing with questions to make sure you understand what is happening), Key Structures and Expressions (important sentence patterns are taught in this section), Noteworthy (one of my favourite sections because goodies are imparted here), and Vocab Builder (more vocabulary to increase your usage of the patterns explained in Key Structures and Expressions).

Tod Daniels: The new course and textbooks by Duke Language School are some of the most revolutionary, best written and engaging conversational Thai textbooks I’ve seen after viewing the material of almost 20 private Thai language schools.

This stuff will turn the “teach conversational Thai to foreigners” marketplace on its ear. This is how Thai should have been taught to us ages ago. The material is presented in a very easy to understand and logically progressive manner. It contains contemporary, high frequency vocabulary that a student will be able to use from day one in conversations with Thais.

If you factor in the companion on-line program currently in development you’ve got the makings of a product that stands head and shoulders above everything else out in the marketplace now. I can’t say enough positive things about the books and the course.

For more about Duke, read Tod Daniels’ Review: Duke Thai Language School.

At present, Royce Heng’s Survival One online course (included in the giveaway) is in sneak preview mode. Once it’s been finalised winners will get two months free access. But, before it’s all spiffed up, winners can preview the incomplete materials as much as they want.

Note: If you don’t win one of the courses not all is lost. You can still get a free lesson by sending them an email here: Duke: Learn Thai.

Duke Language School
10/63, Trendy Building, 3rd floor
Sukhumvit Soi 13, Wattana
Bangkok 10110, Thailand
Tel: +66 8-2444-1595

Facebook: Duke Language BKK
Twitter: @DukeLanguageBKK

Rules for WLTs Thai Language Giveaway…

The rules are dead simple (at this point I could recite them in my sleep):

  • To be included in the draw, leave comments below.
  • Comment(s) need to add to the conversation (it really does matter).
  • Each relevant comment gets counted, so please do leave as many as you like!
  • You do have to live in Bangkok to enter the contest for Duke’s course (let us know).
  • You don’t have to live in Thailand to enter the contest for the book; the cost of shipping to anywhere in the world is covered (again, let us know).
  • If you don’t collect your prize within a week of the announcement, it will be given away to the next person in line.

And remember, even if you’ve won in past giveaways, you can win in this one too.

The draw will run from this moment until the 7th of July, 6pm Thai time. At that time I’ll announce the winners in the comments below as well as create a dedicated post. Good luck!

Again, my thanks goes to Duke Language School and Arthit for gifting these wonderful materials!

WLTs 2015 Thai Language Giveaway…

Here are the posts so far in WLT’s Thai Language Giveaway.

And remember, after this there’s still ONE more week of prizes to be given out to celebrate WLT turning seven. Good luck everyone!

Share Button

Thai Time: Relearn Thai Tense the Thai Way (Part 2)

Bingo Lingo

Relearn Thai tense the Thai way (Part 2)…

In the previous post, we’ve talked about some of the most common time markers in Thai. Actually, I forgot the experience particle เคย /koei/ which is also a VERY important time marker! So before we move on to the next step of our advanced time manipulation like I promised, let’s take a look at this word for a second…

เคย /koei/ – experience particle…

เคย /koei/ is used to describe past experience. This past experience can be a one-off thing that you’ve ‘ever’ done, or it can be something you used to do habitually. Just like มา /maa/, /koei/ is another true tense marker because it only describes events of the past. Experience can only be a thing of the past, right?

ฉันเคยไปเกาหลี
chán koei bpai gaolĭi
I’ve been to Korea.


The speaker has been to Korea; she has the experience of travelling there. In this case /koei/ refers to the speaker’s one-off experience that she has ‘EVER’ been to Korea (unless she adds “twice”, “three times”, etc.)

ฉันเคยอยู่เกาหลี
chán koei yùu gaolĭi
I used to live in Korea.


The speaker in this sentence has an experience in Korea too, but in her case she has the experience of living there. Notice how /koei/ translates to different tenses in English depending on the context of the event. In this case, it is not a one-off experience. She used to live there for an extended period of time. It was constant.

ผมเคยซื้อของที่ร้านนั้นบ่อย
pǒm koei súe kǒrng tîi ráan nán bòi
I used to buy stuff from that shop all the time.


The /koei/ in this case doesn’t describe a one-off experience, nor a continual state of being, but the habituality of the speaker.

If you speak any Romance language, the last 2 usages are an equivalent of the “imperfect tense” like the Italian “Io parlavo”, Spanish “Yo hablaba”, or Portuguese “Eu falava”.

It’s about time – putting the building blocks of time together…

We have learnt what these 8 time markers actually mean and how to use them individually, now it’s time for more complex stuff. By combining these time markers you can create a multitude of expressions of time. Imagine that these time markers are like building blocks. Each individual word has its own primary attribute, and when you put them together they create compound references of time.

However, I am not going to spoon-feed you. As a believer in active learning, I am going to present you with sentences containing multiple time markers. You’re going to read each sentence, consult translation for the words you don’t know, going over the meaning of the particles in part one if necessary. Guess what the sentence might mean in terms of temporal reference, then you can read my explanation. It’s important you try to do it yourself, as long-term knowledge sticks better if you rattle your brain trying to come up with your own answer first. You may forget what you remember, but you will never forget what you understand.

Ready? Scroll carefully or you might accidentally see the answer!

เค้ากำลังไปแล้ว
káo gamlang bpai láeo


เค้า /káo/ – he/she, ไป /bpai/ – to go

(Stop scrolling here!)

Answer: “He’s on the way now.”

/gamlang/ and /láeo/ create the meaning of ‘an ongoing action that has already been set in motion’. He has fulfilled the requirement for ‘going’ by perhaps actually having already left the place, or packing up and getting ready to leave. Either way something is being done in order to go to the destination, but that something is still in process so you won’t be seeing him at point B just yet because he’s still actively working on getting there.

พ่อยังนอนอยู่
pôr yang norn yùu


พ่อ /pôr/ – father, นอน /norn/ – to sleep

(Stop scrolling here!)

Answer: “Dad’s still sleeping.”

/yang/ and /yùu/ create the meaning of ‘an ongoing state that is still unfinished or pending’. The father’s state of ‘sleeping’ is not complete because he hasn’t woken up yet. The sleeping state /norn yùu/ will be complete once the father wakes up or is woken up by someone.

ทุกคนกำลังจะไป
túkkon gamlang jà bpai


ทุกคน /túkkon/ – everyone

(Stop scrolling here!)

Answer: “Everyone’s about to leave.”

/gamlang/ and /jà/ create a meaning of ‘an ongoing action intended to happen’, i.e. “to be about to”. Everyone is still not ready to leave yet, but they are now planning to do so. This is different from #1 กำลัง…แล้ว /gamlang…láeo/ because in #1 the subject is already ‘in the process’ of doing the action, whilst in #3 the subject is only planning to do the action in the near future.

ลูกค้ายังไม่ได้จ่ายเงิน
lûukkáa yang mâi dâi jàai ngern


ลูกค้า /lûukkáa/ – customer, จ่ายเงิน /jàai ngern/ – to pay (money)

(Stop scrolling here!)

Answer: The customer still hasn’t paid yet.

/yang/ and /mâi dâi/ create the meaning of ‘an action that has not been achieved yet and is incomplete’. You can just say ลูกค้ายังไม่จ่ายเงิน /lûukkáa yang mâi jàai ngern/ without the word /dâi/ as well, but keeping the word /dâi/ there makes it seem less deliberate and may imply that the customer ‘hasn’t got around to doing it yet, not because he’s not going to’.

ผมจะกลับบ้านแล้ว
pǒm jà glàp bâan láeo


ผม /pǒm/ – I (male), กลับบ้าน /glàp bâan/ – to go home

(Stop scrolling here!)

Answer: I’m going home right now.

/jà/ and /láeo/, going back to the initial question I posed in part 1, create the meaning of ‘an action intended to be set in motion any time soon’. In this example, the speaker hasn’t started going home yet, but he is so close to doing that, perhaps in a matter of minutes or even seconds. This structure shows how imminent the action is.

ชั้นจะยังไม่ซื้อรถ
chán jà yang mâi súe rót


ชั้น /chán/ – I (mostly female), ซื้อ /súe/ – to buy, รถ /rót/ – car

(Stop scrolling here!)

Answer: I won’t buy a car just yet.

/jà/ and /yang mâi/ create the meaning of ‘an action that is intentionally prevented from being fulfilled’. You can just say ชั้นยังไม่ซื้อรถ /chán yang mâi súe rót/ without the word /jà/ as well, but keeping the word /jà/ there makes it clear that the speaker has made a conscious decision NOT to buy a car. That conscious decision or intention is implied just by the word /jà/.

นักเรียนเคยได้เรียนบทนี้แล้ว
nákrian koei dâi rian bòt níi láeo


นักเรียน /nákrian/ – student, เรียน /rian/ – to study, บท /bòt/ – lesson, นี้ /níi/ – this

(Stop scrolling here!)

Answer: The students have already studied this lesson.

Here comes a combination of 3 particles! /koei/, /dâi/ and /láeo/ create the meaning of ‘an experience that the subject has achieved and has already completed’. The students, in this case, have been taught this lesson and have completed it in its entirety. The past experience has been completely achieved.

จอห์นได้เป็นหัวหน้ามาสามเดือนแล้ว
John dâi bpen hǔanâa maa sǎam duean láeo


เป็น /bpen/ – to be, หัวหน้า /hǔanâa/ – boss, สาม /sǎam/ – three, เดือน /duean/ – month

(Stop scrolling here!)

Answer: John has been the boss for 3 months already.

/dâi/, /maa/ and /láeo/ create a meaning of ‘an achievement that has been continuing from the past up until the present and has completed a certain milestone’. John has been promoted in the past (which is an achievement). That achievement has been in effect up until now (past progressive), and he has just completed a period of 3 months as the boss.

How did you do? Don’t fret if your answers are not quite the same as mine. The accuracy in deeper meaning comes from getting a lot of input from native speakers and repeated use. I hope you take away something from my posts and use it to improve your understanding of Thai. Remember, the most important thing is stop comparing Thai time to your native language and try to construct your understanding from the ground up. Good luck and happy learning!

(Bingo) Arthit Juyaso
Principal of Duke Language School
My book on reading Thai fast: Read Thai in 10 Days

Share Button
Older posts