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Thai Time: Using Pronouns Like a Pro (Part 3: To ‘He/She’ or Not to ‘He/She’, That is the Question)

Bingo Lingo

Using pronouns like a pro…

I lied. I promised I wouldn’t take a year to write my next post but I did. Life has been hectic and I have been beyond busy. Deepest apologies. Well, my apologies won’t help you learn Thai so without further ado, let’s get into the 3rd person pronouns. They’re a lot less complex than what we’ve learnt so far.

เค้า /káo/
Person: 3rd
Sex: Both
Formality: –
Respectful: –
Polite: –
Familiar: –

This pronoun is as neutral as a pronoun can get. Apart from referring to a third party, this word doesn’t mark ANYTHING. So the good news is when you want to say he, she, or they in Thai, this word’s already got 90-95% of it covered. What’s that? Something in Thai that isn’t complicated? Oh my!

Just on one note (of course, an exception!), when talking about people of high prestige (such as what we discussed in Part 2), you should call them by their title instead and keep the use of เค้า /káo/ to a minimum.

When to use: With practically anyone.

When not to use: Probably not with people of high prestige.

ท่าน /tâan/
Person: 3rd
Sex: –
Formality: VERY
Respectful: VERY
Polite: VERY
Familiar: HELL NO
*SEMI-FROZEN REGISTER*

This pronoun is the same pronoun as the 2nd-person ท่าน /tâan/. It is used mostly by service providers when speaking to valued customers, by subordinates when speaking to a person of a significantly higher level of authority, to people of the utmost prestige, by public speakers addressing the audience, or in written language. Please refer to ท่าน /tâan/ in Part 2.

When to use: With VIPs or in formal settings.

When not to use: most of the time, unless you want to be sarcastic.

มัน /man/
Person: 3rd
Sex: –
Formality: No
Respectful: No
Polite: No
Familiar: VERY
*VULGAR*

This word literally means ‘it’ but it can be used like ‘he’ or ‘she’, but in a vulgar way. To put it simply, มัน /man/ is used in the same context as กู /guu/ and มึง /mueng/, although it is slightly less offensive than those two. Still, only use with very close friends. Do not use with strangers as it will provoke them. You mustn’t use it in the presence of a respected audience. Some people might think calling some ‘it’ is degrading, but within the context of Thai language, it’s fine, so long as you know when and with whom to use it.

When to use: Limited use. With close friends who have equal social status.

When not to use: With people who are of a higher status. Also, not in formal settings.

แก /gae/
Person: 3rd
Sex: –
Formality: No
Respectful: Somewhat
Polite: –
Familiar: Yes

Now, แก /gae/ is quite a bizarre pronoun: when used as a 2nd person pronoun (i.e. “you”) it’s rude and not suitable to call older people, but as a 3rd person pronoun, it’s fine! 3rd person แก /gae/ is predominantly used to refer to mature adults and the elderly in a somewhat respectful manner. When talking about your older relatives and professors (warning: ABOUT them, not TO them), you can refer to them as แก /gae/ with no problem (but NEVER to them as a 2nd person!), although you have to actually be somewhat familiar with them. Referring to strangers with this word is not cool.

When to use: Referring to older people whom you are somewhat close to.

When not to use: With everyone else.

หล่อน /lòrn/
Person: 3rd
Sex: Female
Formality: No
Respectful: No
Polite: No
Familiar: Yes

This word is a popular direct translation of the word ‘she’ in English—textbooks just love it and usually pair it with เขา /káo/ and state that หล่อน /lòrn/ means ‘she’ and เขา /káo/ means ‘he’ (and we now know that not to be true because เขา /káo/ is gender-neutral!). However, no one takes this word seriously and the Thais only use it facetiously. When used, for whatever reason, it is to refer to your female friends or female individuals whom you’re close to. In reality, though, just know it exists, you don’t need to use it.

When to use: Don’t.

When not to use: Always.

‘Zero pronoun’—you say it best, when you say nothing at all

We have already covered most well-known Thai pronouns—21 to be exact—and at this point you can start to appreciate how many things Thai people need to take into consideration before they can even start talking to someone.

This can be a minefield in the early stage of acquaintance with the individual you’re speaking to or of: “Is he older?”, “Has she got a good job?”, “Does he mind casual speech?”, “If she’s older, does she want to be treated with respect or as a friend?”, etc. This, as some linguists have posited, may partially contribute to why Thais ask some intrusive questions such as “How much money do you make?” or “How old are you?”—to establish the relative standings in society between you and them.

They do however have a hidden strategy up their sleeves to tackle this convolution. If pronouns are such a nuisance, let’s just not use them at all!
Thais drop personal pronouns all the time in conversations—in fact, NOT using any pronouns is sometimes probably more natural than using any at all. This has at least 2 benefits: #1—to save you a few superfluous words in Thai. Let’s set up a situation: you and a friend are in a room. You ask your friend where your phone is. He said it’s on the table. You can’t be bothered to get up and get it yourself so you’re asking your friend to do it. A complete sentence might look like this:

เธอไปเอามันมาให้ฉันหน่อยได้มั้ย?
ter bpai ao man maa hâi chán nòi dâi mái?
“Can you go get it for me?”

But if it’s already established to whom you’re talking to and regarding what you’re talking about, do you know how Thais would normally phrase it?

ไปเอามาให้หน่อยได้มั้ย?
bpai ao maa hâi nòi dâi mái?
“Can (you) go get (it) for (me)?”

The context (in this case, the previous conversation you had with your friend) would provide all the information that you need to fill in the pronoun gaps. Words said, job done, no pronouns, no problem.

Benefit #2, though, is our main point in this article: to avoid the whole pronoun shenanigans altogether. If you don’t use any pronouns, you don’t need to consider age, gender, social status, etc, right? Let’s have another situation: you are a flight attendant on duty. You walk up and down the aisle while serving refreshments to passengers. They are of different ages, different backgrounds, some are casual and some are uptight, some may even identify as a gender not assigned at birth. It’s impossible to acquire all that information for 100+ people while you’re serving drinks, not that you’d want to anyway! So, instead, just drop it:

รับชาหรือกาแฟคะ?
ráp chaa rŭe gaafae ká?
“Would (you) like tea or coffee?”

Problem solved. No need to even make eye contact. You can talk to a kindergarten pupil or to a prime minister using the same sentence. At this point, you may now have a question: then why don’t you do without the pronouns? Well, because there are situations you will need to use them to avoid ambiguity. Suppose there is no context or previous dialogues whatsoever, you suddenly say to your friend:

จะมาใช่มั้ย?
jà maa châi mái?
“??? is coming, right?”

Nobody will be able to decipher that. You are going to need a pronoun there for clarification. What you can take away from this is that Thai people generally omit pronouns when they think (“THEY think” are the operative words) it’s abundantly clear what the referents are. Otherwise, keep the pronouns there for succinct and effective communication.

And thus concludes this topic: “Using pronouns like a pro”! I hope you have learnt something interesting from this whole series. I will try to come up with a new topic to write again when time permits and when the muse comes to me. See you next post!

Part 1: How to Say ‘I’ in Thai
Part 2: What Should I Call ‘You’

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Introducing Tamago: PickUpThai’s E-Picture Book for Learning Thai

PickUpThai Podcast

It’s here! After putting in loads of time and having a heap of fun while she was at it, Yuki from PickUpThai released Tamago, a colourfully designed picture ebook for learning Thai.

Tamago comes with a LOT of stuff! The book comes in two formats, PDF and Kindle. There are cute books for each version (Thai, transliteration, and English), a plain pdf English with translations, plus three different sound sets (the story, extra sentences and vocabulary).

The Thai PDF version starts out with the story in Thai, then the vocabulary with English translations, followed by the story in English only, and ending with extra phrases to use the sentence patterns. The Kindle version is different in that the story is shown once and when you double click the Thai text the English translation for each paragraph appears in a pop-up text box. A sample is shown below.

PickUpThai

Who is it for: This picture book is particularly made for non-Thai adults learning the Thai language (beginner to intermediate), especially those who learn better visually with images. However, the story was written and the illustrations were deliberately created to also appeal to children. Since the book is bilingual, Thai children can learn English from it as easily as non-Thai speaking kids can use it to learn Thai.

Difficulty: The story is written at an intermediate level using mostly simple vocabulary and simple, short, sentences. The vocabulary is correspondingly basic, and drawn from everyday life situations. But learners will still find a few more complex sentences and complicated vocabulary words included to challenge them, maintain their interest, and help build their skills.

Prices:
Thai Script: $9.99
Transliteration: $9.99
Thai Script & Transliteration: $15.99

NOTE: Sample pages for each version (Thai script, Transliteration and English) with audio files can be downloaded from Tamago: E-Picture Book for Learning Thai.

Website: PickupThai
YouTube: PickupThai
Facebook: PickUpThai
twitter: @PickupThai

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Thai Time: Using Pronouns Like a Pro (Part 2: What Should I Call ‘You’)

Bingo Lingo

Using pronouns like a pro…

In the previous post, Using Pronouns Like a Pro Part 1 (which was yonks ago—I apologise!), I introduced you to the world of Thai personal pronouns. We also broke the first person pronouns into factors and inspected the usage of each word. Now, in this post, we’ll talk about how to use the second person pronoun ‘you’.

คุณ /kun/
Person: 2nd
Sex: Both
Formality: Yes
Respectful: –
Polite: Yes
Familiar: No

This word is a pair word for both ผม /pǒm/ and ดิฉัน /dichán/, and is perhaps the only word beginners use to address every Thai person, but over time you might want to change this word to something more familiar and less formal to your listeners. Now, learners need to be aware that while it is true that this word is polite, it is NOT respectful (NB: not respectful doesn’t mean disrespectful); คุณ is not okay to use with people of higher prestige or authority. If you perceive your listeners to have higher prestige or authority status than you, call them by their appropriate title instead (we will discuss social status later on in this post.)

When to use: With most people. Strangers, service providers, people you have a professional relationship with.

When not to use: Probably not with close friends or with friends you want to get close to, also with people of higher social status.

Paired pronoun: ผม /pǒm/, ดิฉัน /dichán/

เธอ /ter/
Person: 2nd
Sex: –
Formality: No
Respectful: No
Polite: –
Familiar: –

เธอ /ter/ is a paired word with ฉัน /chán/ — it is considered a default ‘you’ pronoun and you’ll hear this word used a lot in songs and literature. This word is popular amongst Thais when used cross-gender; female calling male and male calling female. This word is considered ‘non-respectful’ (different from disrespectful) and should not be used with people of higher social status.

When to use: Talking to friends of the opposite sex around the same age or younger.

When not to use: When you need to be extremely polite. Certainly not with people of higher social status, such as doctors, monks, university professors. People you don’t know well.

Paired pronoun: ฉัน /chán/

นาย /naai/
Person: 2nd
Sex: Male
Formality: No
Respectful: No
Polite: –
Familiar: –

นาย /naai/ is cute. It originally meant ‘lord’ but now means ‘Mr.’ or ‘boss’ in contemporary Thai. When it is used as a 2nd person pronoun, it can be used to call any male listener of the same age with any level of familiarity. However, you might want to change this pronoun to something more personal later on as you and that male person get closer. In addition, this word can be used in lieu of เธอ /ter/ as they share the same hierarchical attributes, but only if the listener is male, of course.

When to use: your listener is around your age, same social status, and is a man!

When not to use: anyone who does not fit the criteria above.

Paired pronoun:

เรา /rao/
Person: 2nd
Sex: –
Formality: –
Respectful: No
Polite: –
Familiar: Somewhat

What? เรา /rao/ can mean you?? Yes, it can! Older people use this word to call someone around their child’s age in an endearing tone e.g. พ่อแม่เราอยู่ที่ไหน? /pôr-mâe rao yùu tîinǎi?/ “Where are your parents?”. Aw. However, as a 2nd person pronoun it is a little condescending, because by calling someone with this word you treat them like a little kid, which in some cases is dismissive of their social status, so be careful who you’re ‘rao’-ing because he or she might turn out to be a university professor or a high-rank police officer, and they will hate it, and hate you in the process.

When to use: Talking to kids or someone your child’s age.

When not to use: When that ‘kid’ has achieved more than you have.

มึง /mueng/
Person: 2nd
Sex: –
Formality: HELL NO
Respectful: HELL NO
Polite: HELL NO Familiar: VERY *VULGAR*

This word is the paired pronoun of กู /guu/ and it is chosen for the same context of use. Only use with very close friends. Do not use with strangers as it will provoke them. You mustn’t use it in the presence of a respected audience. And all that jazz.

When to use: Very limited use. With close friends (only when they initiate it, and only when respected individuals are not around).

When not to use: When you’re not sure you can get out of it alive.

Paired pronoun: กู /guu/

เอ็ง /eng/
Person: 2nd
Sex: –
Formality: No
Respectful: No
Polite: No
Familiar: VERY *VULGAR*

It is the paired pronoun of ข้า /kâa/ and is similar to มึง /mueng/ above; this one is also considered vulgar, although it is nowhere near as vulgar as มึง /mueng/. Just like the pronoun ข้า /kâa/, เอ็ง /eng/ sounds quite archaic for the 21st century. Its implication is that the speaker is of an older generation or that he or she comes from quite a remote part of Thailand.

When to use: Never? Unless you’re writing a Thai epic novel.

When not to use: When you’re not writing a Thai epic novel.

Paired pronoun: ข้า /kâa/

แก /gae/
Person: 2nd
Sex: –
Formality: No
Respectful: No
Polite: No
Familiar: Yes
*SEMI-VULGAR*

This word has a similar context of use as มึง /mueng/ and เอ็ง /eng/ but is much less vulgar. It is used both by male and female to refer to someone close and around their age. It is perfect amongst friends of considerable intimacy. It’s not really that impolite but still should be reserved for friends you know very well. Use with caution.

When to use: Friends your age or slightly younger. Probably best to wait until they initiate it first.

When not to use: Older people and strangers.

Paired pronoun: (in some cases) ฉัน /chán/

ท่าน /tâan/
Person: 2nd
Sex: –
Formality: VERY
Respectful: VERY
Polite: VERY
Familiar: HELL NO
*SEMI-FROZEN REGISTER*

This pronoun is an over-the-top respectful pronoun used mostly by service providers when speaking to valued customers, by subordinates when speaking to a person of a much higher level of authority, to people of great prestige, by public speakers addressing the audience, or in written language. This word is hardly heard in spoken language so when you do hear it, you know there’s a real V.I.P. in the room!

When to use: With V.I.P. or in formal settings

When not to use: most of the time, unless you want to be sarcastic

ลื้อ /lúe/
Person: 2nd
Sex: –
Formality: No
Respectful: No
Polite: No
Familiar: Yes
*CHINESE ORIGIN*

This word comes from the Teochew word 汝 [lɨ˥˨] (you). This word is used mainly by people of Teochew ancestry and is still commonly used amongst Thai families of Chinese descent. Not recommended for learners, just like อั๊ว /úa’/

When to use: When you’re Chinese-Thai.

When not to use: When you’re not Chinese-Thai.

Paired pronoun: อั๊ว /úa’/

ตัวเอง /dtua-eeng/
Person: 2nd
Sex: Mostly female
Formality: No
Respectful: –
Polite: –
Familiar: Yes
*LOVERSPEAK*

This word essentially means “self” and is paired with the 1st person pronoun เค้า /káo/ “I” which essentially means “he, she” …yes, whoever came up with this utterly confusing idea must have been wasted on Ya Dong or something. Just like the 1st person pronoun เค้า /káo/, this word is generally used by young females to call their best friends or boyfriend and in my opinion should not be picked up by learners of Thai, especially if you’re male, because it sounds incredibly effeminate and obnoxious! But that’s just my opinion.

When to use: Should you use this word? No. At least save it for when talking to your boyfriend/girlfriend only.

When not to use: Need I say more?

Paired pronoun: เค้า /káo/

Prestige, authority, seniority—because we’re better than (the pronoun) ‘you’…

Thailand is characterised by, despite what some Thais desperately try to tell you, social hierarchy. Where you stand in society can affect how people address you. Those who have a higher social status must be addressed with respect by those of lower status. And in many cases, even the polite pronoun คุณ /kun/ may not be polite enough, as I will explain.

From my experience of having been hearing many non-native speakers of Thai preferring to stick to polite pronouns such as คุณ /kun/, thinking they would always sound nice and never offend anyone if they use polite pronouns all the time. Was that a true statement? No. Not at all. A couple of years back while I was still doing my Master’s course, one of my professors told the class that foreign students at our university irritate her when they speak Thai to her because they address her as คุณ /kun/!

Why did a seemingly polite word such as คุณ /kun/ manage to offend my easy-going professor? The reason is that in Thailand, people with high prestige such as educators or doctors must be treated with respect. While คุณ /kun/ is a “polite” word, it is neutral in terms of “respectfulness”. By calling her คุณ /kun/, those students unknowingly dragged her down to their ‘level’. My professor said she understood that they knew no better and she could look over their faux pas, but she felt compelled to switch to English because she didn’t want to be called คุณ /kun/ repeatedly by students. There goes their opportunity to practice Thai, just because of one pronoun.

So how should they have addressed her? In the next section I will explain about the first—and perhaps the most prominent agent that dictates the way Thai people address each other: social status. Where you rank in the hierarchy is determined by a complex set of many different factors, but in this article we’ll consider only the three most important ones, in their respective priority order: prestige, authority, and seniority.

Prestige is usually decided by profession or personal achievement. Examples of people with high prestige are educators (teachers and lecturers), doctors and medical practitioners (dentists and surgeons), high-ranking military officers, politicians, people with a high academic degree (Ph.D. and above), or even respected astrologers, etc. Normally you address them by their title first, and if you want, stick their name after it. For example:

ครูอาทิตย์ /kruu Arthit/ “Teacher Arthit”
อาจารย์สุดาพร /aajaan Sudaporn/ “Professor Sudaporn”
(คุณ*)หมอพรทิพย์ /(kun*) mǒr Pornthip/ “Doctor Pornthip” (medical doctor)
(ท่าน)นายกสมชาย /(tâan) naayók Somchai/ “Mr. Prime Minister Somchai”
(ท่าน)พลเอกประยุทธ์ /(tâan) pon-èek Prayuth/ “General Prayuth”
ด็อกเตอร์อมรา /dórk-dtêr Amara/ “Doctor Amara” (PhD)
อาจารย์ลักษณ์ /aajaan Lak/, หมอลักษณ์ /mǒr Lak/ (title for astrologers)

*Note that the word คุณ /kun/ is this case doesn’t mean “you” but a polite title like “Mr.” or “Ms.”

People with high prestige must be addressed by their profession, field of expertise, or the title that gives them the prestige they possess, rather than by pronouns like คุณ /kun/, which may be viewed as disrespectful to their status.

Authority is usually decided by who has more power or a higher rank, such as a relationship between employer vs employee, boss vs subordinate, police or government officer vs civilian, etc.

People with higher authority are generally addressed by their position or by using polite pronouns (in most cases without their name):

ท่านประธาน /tâan bprataan/ “CEO”
เจ้านาย /jâonaai/ “Boss” (literally “master”)
หัวหน้า /hǔanâa/, บอส /bórt/ “Boss”
ผ.อ. /pǒr-or/ “Dean” (of a university, hospital, etc.)
คุณตำรวจ /kun dtamrùat/ “(Police) officer”

Except your bosses or direct superiors, you can use the word คุณ /kun/ with people of high authority, but be aware that using any disrespectful or impolite pronouns with them is a direct challenge to their power. Respect my authoritah!

Seniority plays a very important role when addressing people. In the Thai language, kinship terms are often used instead of pronouns to show respect to older people while creating solidarity; by addressing people as if they were your own relatives, you create a casual, friendly atmosphere. For instance, when visiting your Thai friend or partner’s parents, they may ask you to call them แม่ /mâe/ “Mum” or พ่อ /pôr/ “Dad” instead of คุณ /kun/ which sounds too formal and distant.

If your addressee is a relative of your friend or partner, you can just address them in the same way that your friend or partner does. For strangers and acquaintances, you can still use kinship terms to address them as well. In this case, age is crucial. Speakers must estimate the age of an addressee to determine his/her generation and choose an appropriate kinship term.

พี่… /pîi…/ (lit. older brother or sister)
for calling someone who may be slightly older than you

(คุณ)น้า… /(kun) náa…/ (lit. mother’s younger sibling)
for calling someone who’s younger than your parents but couldn’t be your parents’ child

(คุณ)ป้า… /(kun) bpâa…/ (lit. parents’ older sister)
for calling a female older than your parents, but couldn’t be their mother

(คุณ)ลุง… /(kun) lung…/ (lit. parents’ older brother)
for calling a male older than your parents, but couldn’t be their father

(คุณ)ยาย… /(kun) yaai…/ (lit. mother’s mother)
for calling a female who’s around your grandmother’s age

(คุณ)ตา… /(kun) dtaa…/ (lit. mother’s father)
for calling a male who’s around your grandfather’s age

You can just use these kinship terms by themselves or stick the person’s name afterwards like พี่ติ๊ก /pîi dtík/. Older people automatically assume respect from younger people. By default, you have to address them with respectful kinship terms. Avoid using คุณ /kun…/ (except in formal situations) because it will drive a social wedge between you and them.

Now, you may have a question like “What if I am a university professor talking to an older fruit seller? Who’s higher in the hierarchy?” In a “status dilemma” such as this, just remember that prestige takes precedence over authority, and authority takes precedence over seniority, so if you’re a teacher which is a prestigious status, you automatically rank higher than older people who do not have the prestige over you. In this case, the fruit seller will have to (assuming he or she knows you’re a teacher) address you as ครูจอห์น /kruu John/ or อาจารย์ลอร่า /Aajaan Laura/. However, both of you can engage in what I call “mutually respectful entitling”; you can also call him or her with a title of seniority such as น้า /náa/ ป้า /bpâa/ or ลุง /lung/ while he or she calls you with a title of prestige like ครู /kruu/ or อาจารย์ /aajaan/.

Does that seem a bit too hard to digest? I’ll leave you to have a respite for now. Don’t shy away from re-reading this article again if you feel that you still haven’t quite fully grasped the idea. In my next and the last post regarding pronouns, Thai Time: Using pronouns like a pro (Part 3: To ‘He/She’ or Not to ‘He/She’, That is the Question) we will discuss how to use 3rd person pronouns, and whether using pronouns is important at all! I promise I won’t wait a year this time!

Until next time (soon)!

Part 1: How to Say ‘I’ in Thai
Part 3: To ‘He/She’ or Not to ‘He/She’, That is the Question

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Why Do Foreigners Quit Learning Thai?

This is a recurring problem that I hear from many learners of Thai. I put this clip together to hopefully help Thais who are working or living with foreigners know how to better handle some situations with foreigners to ensure that they will keep motivated with their learning.

If you live or work with any Thais, send this clip to them. I’m sure it will help!

Follow the conversation on FCLT: Why do foreigners quit learning Thai?

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Listening & Vocabulary Building using Hormones (Thai Drama): Final Season Episode 3 Part 2/6

Hormones 3, The Final Season Episode 3 Part 2/6…

Main characters: Ms. Pasarapa, Jane
Segment Time: 4:40—8:10

Background: In the last lesson, Jane and her classmates were studying English in Ms. Ying’s high school English class. Ms. Ying is a very traditional teacher and is overly strict with her students. In this clip, Jane and her classmates are meeting their music teacher, Ms. Pasarapa, on the first day of the semester. Kruu Pasapara is totally the opposite of Khruu Ying and tries to motivate her students by using informal language and humor.

Note 1: This clip is quite difficult. You shouldn’t expect to understand or learn everything. Just focus on the things that are easy enough for you at your level or which you find interesting. I promise the next lesson will be much easier.

Note 2: This clip has English subtitles, which you should turn off, at least for the first few viewings. I have put my own English translation at the end of the dialog below so that the exercise is not too easy. Try not to look at the English until you have tried to study the text on your own.

Answers: The answers to the exercise can be found at the very bottom of this page.

Transliteration: Download the pdf to get both Thai script and transliteration.

Procedure:

  1. Learn the vocabulary below.
  2. Watch the scene 2-3 times with subtitles covered.
  3. Read the script and try to fill in the missing words without using the video.
  4. Watch the video again to check your answers.
  5. Next, read the English translation towards the end of this post to help you.
  6. Check your answers (found at the bottom of this post).
  7. Try shadowing a few of the easy phrases and short sentences from the video. Shadowing is simply pausing the video after you hear a target phrase and then repeating it. For example, stop the video after you hear “นั่งลง (sit down)” and say it out loud.

Important Vocabulary:

ไง: What’s up?; Hi.
แนะนำตัว: introduce oneself
สั้นๆ: brief; short
ฝากเนื้อฝากตัว: entrust one to someone’s care; become dependent on someone
ทาย: guess; predict; forecast
คะแนน: point; grade (score)
คนละ: (to) each; each differently
เนี่ย: informal emphasis particle
ย่อมาจาก: short for (abbreviated)
ความเร็ว: speed
ป่ะ: shortened, informal form of ‘หรือเปล่า’, ‘rěubplàao’ (or not?)
เลขคู่: even number
ตบมือ: clap; applaud; give someone a hand
รู้สึกยังไงกับ…: How do you feel about…?

เสียง: sound
วิชาดนตรี: music class
เครื่องดนตรี: musical instrument
กลอง: drums
กีต้าร์: guitar
ฟัง: listen
ได้ยิน: hear
เพลง: song
ได้ยิน: hear
เพลง: song
จังหวะ: beat; rhythm
สามสิบ: 30
หนึ่งร้อย: 100
ร้อยยี่สิบ: 120
สี่ร้อย: 400

Conversation:

นักเรียน: นักเรียนเคารพ

นักเรียน: สวัสดีครับ/สวัสดีค่ะ

ครูภัสราภา: ไง กินข้าวกันมาอิ่มๆ จะหลับแล้วเหรอ
…แยกย้ายกันไปนอนป่ะ ครูว่าครูก็ง่วงๆเหมือนกันนะเนี่ย
…เฮ้ย ตื่นมาวัยรุ่น
…เดี๋ยวครูจะขอแนะนำตัวก่อนนะค่ะ
…ครูชื่อภัสราภาค่ะ
…เรียกครูสั้นๆว่าครูลูกตาลก็ได้
…ครูจะมาสอน ___ (1) สากล
…ถ้ายังไง ฝากเนื้อฝากตัวด้วยนะจ๊ะ

นักเรียน: ครับ/ค่ะ

ครูภัสราภา: เอามา…
…เดี๋ยววันนี้นะครูจะเปิด ___ (2)ให้ฟัง
…แล้วให้ช่วยกันทายว่าเสียงดนตรีที่ ___ (3)
เนี่ยมันเกิดมาจาก ___ (4) ชนิดไหนบ้าง

นักเรียน: เจย็ด…วัยรุ่นว่ะ เพราะอะไร (ร้องเพลงอยู่)

ครูภัสราภา: ดูๆๆๆๆๆ เมื่อกี้อ่ะคือ ___ (5) อะไร

นักเรียน: ___ (6) คับ

ครูภัสราภา: ครึ่งคะแนน…เกือบแล้ว

นักเรียน: กีต้าร์โปร่งฮะ

ครูภัสราภา: ถูกต้อง แบ่งคะแนนคนละครึ่งนะจ๊ะ ___ (7) ต่อนะ
ได้ยินไหม ตุบๆ เสียงอะไร

นักเรียน: ___ (8) ละคับ เสียงกิกๆคือเสียง hi-hat เสียงตุบๆคือเสียงเบส
ดรัม เสียงแปะๆคือเสียงตบมือ
แต่น่าจะเป็นเสียงแซัมฮะ… เสียงกลองจากคอมคับ

ครูภัสราภา: โอ้โฮ นี้พวกเธอนี้มันเด็กเก่งเรื่องดนตรีเนี่ย เหอ รู้ละเนี่ย เชื่อได้
…มา งั้นครูขอยากขึ้นอีกนิดนึงนะ
…ใครเคย ___ (9) คำนี้บ้าง

…‘BPM’ย่อมาจากอะไร Beat Per Minute มันคือหน่วยวัด tempo หรือว่า
ความเร็วของ ___ (10) มันคือการนับว่าในเพลงเนี่ยมี ___ (11)
ทั้งสิ้นกี่จังหวะในหนึ่งนาที

…ลองนึกภาพตามนะ: หนึ่งสองสามสี่ห้าหกเจ็ดแปด
เก็ตป่ะ คำถามคือ ___ (12) เนี้ย BPM คือเท่าไหร่ เอ้าเร็ว!

นักเรียน: ___ (13) คับ

ครูภัสราภา: ช้าไป นิดนึง

นักเรียน: ___ (14) ค่ะ

ครูภัสราภา: ใกล้ละๆ

นักเรียน: ___ (15) คับ

ครูภัสราภา: บอกว่าใกล้แล้ว ใครตอบได้บ้าง

เจน: ___ (16) ค่ะ

ครูภัสราภา: เฮ้ย ถูกต้องเลยอ่ะ มั่วถูกป่ะเนี่ยเหอ

เจน: หนูลองนับหนึ่งสองสามสี่ตามที่ครูบอกค่ะ และเข็มวิ
มันก็ลงที่เลขคู่พอดี แปลว่าหนึ่งวิก็มีสอง ___ (17) หนึ่งนาทีก็เลย
___ (18) ค่ะ

ครูภัสราภา: โอ้โฮ ตบมือให้เพื่อนหน่อย เชื่อได้ละนะ ชื่ออะไรจ๊ะ

เจน: เจนค่ะ

ครูภัสราภา: เจนอ่ะ เก่งนะเนี่ย ไอ้พวกนั้นตอบไม่ได้สักคน
เอามามากลับมา… เรื่องของสุนทรีแห่งการฟังเพลง
ทุกคนหลับตา นี้ครูจะเปิดเพลงให้ ___ (19) นะจ๊ะ แล้วเดี๋ยวครูจะถามว่า
แต่ละคนเนี่ยรู้สึกยังไงกับ ___ (20) นี้บ้าง

English Translation:

Student: Students—show respect.

Students: Good afternoon. (Literally ‘Hello’)

Ms. Pasarapa: What’s up? Are you all full? Are you gonna fall asleep?
…You wanna go and get some sleep? I think I’m feeling a bit sleepy, too!
…Hey! Wake up kids! (Literally: teenagers)
…First, I’d like to introduce myself.
…My name’s Pasarapa.
…You can call me ‘Ms. Louktarn’ for short.
…I’ll be teaching you music.
…In any case…How do you do? (Literally: Entrust yourselves to me).

Students: Okay.

Ms. Pasarapa: Alright guys…
…Today I’m going to play a song for you.
…and have you guys guess what kind of musical instrument the sound you hear comes from.

Student: Whoa! She rocks! (Literally: Fuck! Teenager!) Why? (singing)

Ms. Pasarapa: Duu duu duu duu duu (that you heard) just then… what sound was that?

Student: A guitar.

Ms. Pasarapa: Half a point…almost!

Student: An acoustic guitar.

Ms. Pasarapa: That’s correct! Each person gets half a point. (Literally: shares half a point). Listen some more. Do you hear that? Dum dum—what’s that sound?

Student: The drums. The tick tick is the hi-hat.The dum dum is the bass drum. The clap clap is clapping. But they are probably digital drum samples.

Ms. Pasarapa: Wow!! Hey, are you guys musicians or what? You guys are good, I can tell.
…Okay, allow me to make it a bit harder (this time).
…Has anyone heard this word before?
…What does BPM stand for? Beats per Minute. It’s a unit of measurement for the tempo or speed of the song. It’s a count of, in a song, how many total beats there are in one minute.
…Try to visualize it: 12345678. Got it? The question is… what is the BPM of this song?
Come on! (Literally: Oh, hurry up!)

Student: Thirty.

Ms. Pasarapa: Too slow. A bit more.

Student: 100.

Ms. Pasarapa: Close! Close!

Student: 400.

Ms. Pasarapa: I said close! Can anyone guess?

Jane: 120.

Ms. Pasarapa: Wow! Exactly! Just a wild guess, huh?

Jane: I tried counting 1 2 3 4 like you told us to. Just then the second hand landed on an even number, which means in one second there are two beats. So in 1 minute there are 120.

Ms. Pasarapa: Wow! Give your friend a hand! That was good! What’s your name?

Jane: Jane.

Ms. Pasarapa: Jane? That was good! Not even one of those guys (musicians) could answer!
Alright guys… now it’s time for music appreciation. Everyone close your eyes. I’m going to play another song for you. And then I’ll ask each person how they feel about the song.

Additional Notes:

1. เจย็ด: this is a vulgar word which derives from ‘เย็ด’, meaning ‘fuck’. He most likely adds the ‘J’ sound for emphasis.
2. ถ้ายังไง: “If any case; Anyway…”
3. เชื่อได้: seems to be some kind of slang which means “That was good!”
4. เก็ตป่ะ: “Got it?” Get comes from the English ‘get’.
5. วิชาดนตรีสากล: (music class) is the full formal name for this subject.

Answers:

1. วิชาดนตรี 2. เพลง 3. ได้ยิน 4. เครื่องดนตรี 5. เสียง 6. กีต้าร์ 7. ฟัง 8. กลอง 9. ได้ยิน 10. เพลง 11. จังหวะ 12. เพลง 13. สามสิบ 14. หนึ่งร้อย 15. สี่ร้อย 16. ร้อยยี่สิบ 17. จังหวะ 18. ร้อยยี่สิบ 19. ฟัง 20. เพลง

REMINDER: Download the pdf to get both Thai script and transliteration.

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Listening & Vocabulary Building using Hormones (Thai Drama): Final Season Episode 2 Part 1/6


Hormones 3, The Final Season Episode 2 Part 1/6
…

EDIT: This video has already been taken offline – if you find it on Youtube, please contact me.

Main characters: Jane, Ms. Ying

Segment Time: 9:34—12:20

Background: Jane, a high school student, has recently returned to Bangkok after having studied abroad (in New York) for two years. This scene takes place in her English class.

Note: This clip has English subtitles, which you should turn off, at least for the first few viewings. I have put my own English translation at the end of the dialog below so that the exercise is not too easy. Try not to look at the English until you have tried to study the text on your own.

Answers: The answers can be found at the very bottom of this page.
Transliteration: Download the pdf to get both Thai script and transliteration.

Procedure:

  1. Learn the vocabulary below.
  2. Watch the scene 2-3 times with subtitles covered.
  3. Read the script and try to fill in the missing words without using the video.
  4. Watch the video again to check your answers.
  5. Next, read the English translation towards the end of this post to help you.
  6. Check your answers (found at the bottom of this post).
  7. Try shadowing a few of the easy phrases and short sentences from the video. Shadowing is simply pausing the video after you hear a target phrase and then repeating it. For example, stop the video after you hear “นั่งลง (sit down)” and say it out loud.

Important Vocabulary:

แบบฝึกหัด: exercise (homework or in-class assignment)
แปล: translate; mean (something)
ตัวอย่าง: an example; a model
สัมภาษณ์(งาน): (job) interview
เสนอตำแหน่ง: offer a position/job
โมโหร้าย: hot-tempered
อนุญาต: permit; allow; excuse
เมืองนอก: abroad; foreign country
พิจารณา: consider; take into account
บริบท: context
ใหญ่หลวง: huge; enormous; big; big time
กิริยามารยาท: manners; etiquette; politeness; decorum
สัมมาคารวะ: respect; esteem; politeness (to one’s elders)


Conversation:

ครูหญิง: แบบฝึกหัดที่ครูเพิ่งจะแจกพวกเธอไป
ครูต้องการ ____ (1) เธอแปลประโยคสั้นๆจำนวนห้าสิบ
ประโยค ครูจะแปลข้อหนึ่งเป็นตัวอย่าง จด ____ (2)
 ทัน ถ้าพวกเธออยากมีงานทำน้อยลงหนึ่งข้อ
(reads out #1 in English first)

ริชาร์ดไปสัมภาษณ์งานเพราะบริษัทบอก ____ (3) จะสามารถเสนอตำแหน่งดีๆ ____ (4) กับเขาได้ แต่ระหว่างสัมภาษณ์งานเขารู้ตัว ____ (5) มีโอกาสไม่มากนัก 
ผู้จัดการ…ผู้จัดการ…full of hot air…ผู้จัดการเป็นพวกโมโหร้าย

เจน: ขออนุญาตค่ะ

ครูหญิง: มีอะไรนางสาวเจน ลุกขึ้นพูด


เจน: หนู ____ (6) ครูแปล ____ (7) นะค่ะ


ครูหญิง: ฉันเป็นครูสอนภาษาอังกฤษมายี่สิบปี
เธอน่ะยังเกิดมา ____ (8) นานเท่านั้นเลย อย่าคิด ____ (9) เรียนเมืองนอก
มาแล้วจะมาทำฉลาดกว่าคนที่นี่

เจน: หนู ____ (10) บอกว่าตัวเองฉลาดค่ะ หนูแค่บอก ____ (11) ครูแปล ____ (12) ถ้าครูแปลผิดแล้วปล่อยไปแบบนี้เนี่ยคนอื่นก็ต้องจำผิดสิค่ะ

ครูหญิง: ในการแปลประโยคจะต้องพิจารณาจากบริบท ‘hot air’ ในที่นี่หมายถึง
การโมโหร้าย

เจน: หนูเซิร์ชแล้วค่ะ ‘full of hot air’ เป็นสำนวน แปล ____ (13) ‘talking nonsense’ ค่ะ

ครูหญิง: ยังไงก็แล้วแต่ ปัญหาอันใหญ่หลวงของเธอก็คือเรื่องกิริยามารยาท ถ้าจะ ____ (14) มีสัมมาคารวะแบบนี้เธอก็คงอยู่ที่นี่ ____ (15) หรอก กลับเมืองนอก 
(?can’t catch this word) ของเธอไปเถอะ นั่งลง คุยอะไรกัน ทำงานไป

English Translation:

Ms. Ying: The assignment (exercise) I just passed out to you — I’d like you to translate fifty short paragraphs (sentences). I’ll translate #1 for you as an example. If you want one less to do, (keep up with me and) write this (one) down.

“Richard went on (sic=to) the job interview because the company said they would be able to offer him a good position. But during the interview, he realized there is not much opportunity. The manager was just full of hot air.”

Jane: Excuse me.

Ms. Ying: What is it Jane? Stand up and speak.

Jane: I think you translated it incorrectly.

Ms. Ying: I’ve been an English teacher for 20 years. You weren’t even born yet (when I started teaching). Don’t think that (just) because you studied abroad, you can come here and act like you are smarter than people here.

Jane: I didn’t say that I’m smart. I just said that you translated (it) wrong. If you translate it wrong, and then just let it go, then others will remember what’s incorrect.

Ms. Ying: When translating a sentence, you must take into account (consider) the context. In this context, ‘hot air’ means being ‘hot-tempered’.

Jane: I googled it already. ’Full of hot air’ is an idiom which means ‘talk nonsense’.

Ms. Ying: In any event, your huge problem is your manners. If you show no respect like this, you surely can’t fit in here. Go back to your country. Sit down. What are you talking about?! Do your work!

Answers: 1. ให้ 2. ให้ 3. ว่า 4. ให้ 5. ว่า 6. ว่า 7. ผิด 8. ไม่ 9. ว่า 10. ไม่ได้ 11. ว่า 12. ผิด 13. ว่า 14. ไม่ 15. ไม่ได้

REMINDER: Download the pdf to get both Thai script and transliteration.

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Approach Learning Thai by First Understanding its Diversity

Approach Learning Thai by Understanding its Diversity

Understand the diversity in the Thai language…

I’ve always been a big believer that there is hardly ever a “best way” to do anything. Simply put, humanity has never progressed by following strict rules or being dogmatic in approaches to learning. When we limit our experiences by claiming that one method stands out above others, we deny our inherent nature to be experimental.

More and more people choose to submit to a more orthodox and nearly dogmatic view on how things should be done. I often see this in the Thai language learning community. Both learners and native speakers of Thai often will say that there is a “best way” to convey a certain feeling or pronounce a word as if the multitude of human emotions that we experience individually can be shoved into a static microcosm of ideas that can be used generally to express ourselves. We get caught up in the concept that language usage is right or wrong instead of being a tool to communicate. We create what I consider to be useless standards on our level of language acquisition. I call it useless because every standard presented can not always be met by a native speaker.

Foreigners constantly talk about having a Thai accent as if all Thais speak the same way. They talk about correct pronunciation as if there is only one way to say something and like all Thais speak formally all day. We set the standard of Thai language to emulate a government propagated language. Thailand is very much a multilingual society regardless of what Phibun tried to accomplish with the cultural mandates in the 1930s stating all Thais must only speak Thai. When you say “I speak Thai”, do you know what Thai you are speaking? Are you speaking the Thai that is taught in school? Are you speaking one of the regional dialects? Do you speak a combination?

I find these standards to be pointless because they are trying to make a static average out of something that is inherently fluid. Words like “fluency” and “level of competence” have absolutely no meaning to me. Language tests might give a person a boost to their ego or be good to put on a job resume, but at the end of the day language is a tool to be used. You might speak a language, but have you lived in the culture and integrated? Have you used your skills to create relationships and become invested in a community? Does it help you in your work life?

A few months ago I was visiting my wife’s family in a village outside of Chiang Rai. It was a normal evening in Northern Thailand. My mother-in-law had cooked a feast, my wife’s uncle brought over a bottle of lao-kao that a friend had brewed, and we sat around the table with my in-laws and aunts and uncles. While eating and drinking multiple languages were being spoken. My father-in-law and his brother and sister spoke Yong and the rest of the family answered in Northern Thai. Once in a while, they would switch to Central Thai to address me. At one point, my wife told my mother-in-law to speak to me in the Chiang Mai dialect instead of the Chiang Rai dialect because it’s easier for me to understand. We were all speaking different languages and dialects and understanding each other (though I did have to constantly ask my wife’s uncle to translate what he said in Yong). They broke every “grammar rule” that people are taught not to say and their pronunciation differed from person to person. The usage of language was the least important aspect of the night. The real meaning came as a result of our communication. My wife’s aunt and uncle recalled vivid stories from their youth where they encountered spirits and saw a person possessed by a spirit. They reminisced on how they used to have to travel almost 24 hours by taking a bus to Lampang and hopping on a train to Chiang Mai when today the whole trip takes 3 hours. We all connected with each other and shared our stories.

If there is so much diversity in one family’s conversation, how is it possible to try to create a standard for a whole country of people? When a Thai friend from Bangkok visited my wife’s village with us last year, everybody was making fun of him for his funny Bangkok accent and for not being able to understand Northern Thai well. We create our standards based on our own personal standing. I personally find the concept of “not knowing everything” to be exciting and invigorating. I have never had a goal to become “fluent”. My goal for speaking Thai has been to connect and interact with people. I want to experience a different way of life and learn their stories. Instead of trying to create a standard of competency that has to do with useless hurdles, why not judge your language skills on what it helps you accomplish? How has your studies of Thai language enhanced your life? What relationships have you built as a result? Anybody can learn a language, it’s what you do with your knowledge that counts.

Next time somebody tells you there is a best way to say something, take it as “this is my favorite way to say something” and move on. Do what works for you and keep on interacting with more people. The beauty of the Thai language and culture is in its diversity.

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Thai Language Connectors: Filler Connectors

Thai Language Connectors

Filler Connectors for Thai learners…

Welcome to Filler Connectors, the third post in the Thai Language Connectors series. The previous posts in the series were: The Starter Pack (Anthony Lauder’s original 100 connectors that has a sample from each subject), and Opening Connectors (connectors that give you breathing time before answering questions).

Anthony Lauder: Filler Connectors are throw-away phrases you can insert when you need a little more thinking time. They give the illusion of deep pondering, or sharing something personal, which is exactly what you want while you think of what you are going to say next.

Notes: 1) The target audience is educated Thais (for the most part), with the materials being slightly formal in scope. And 2) an * before the phrase means there is no equivalent expression in Thai but it sounds more or less ok anyway. And 3) please don’t freak out, there’s a pdf with transliteration.

Filler Connectors for Thai learners…

It is good to know that…
ดีใจที่ได้รู้ว่า…


Well, to put it briefly…
อืม จะให้พูดสั้นๆก็คือ…


It is worth mentioning that…
อีกเรื่องหนึ่งที่บอกไว้ไม่เสียหายก็คือ…


*I think that I should point out that…
ผม/ฉันว่าผม/ฉันควรจะชี้ให้คุณเห็นว่า…


I should mention that…
แล้วผม/ฉันก็อยากบอกด้วยว่า…


Now that you mention it, I really do think that…
พอตอนนี้คุณพูดมา ผม/ฉันก็คิดจริงๆว่า…


It is remarkable that…
น่าไม่เชื่อเลยว่า…


I am amazed that…
ผม/ฉันรู้สึกทึ่งที่…


I must admit that…
ผม/ฉันต้องยอมรับว่า…


I grant that…
ผม/ฉันยอมรับว่า…


I must grant that…
ผม/ฉันต้องยอมรับว่า…


On the one hand… on the other…
แง่นึง… แต่อีกแง่นึง…


After all…
สุดท้ายแล้ว…


I should say that…
ผม/ฉันจะบอกคุณว่า…


Oddly enough…
แปลกแต่จริง…


I would like to tell you that…
ผม/ฉันอยากจะบอกคุณว่า…


I would like to know whether…
ผม/ฉันอยากรู้ว่า…


It is unbelievable how…
ไม่น่าเชื่อว่า…


*I think that I should point out to you that…
ผม/ฉันว่าผม/ฉันควรจะชี้ให้คุณเห็นว่า…


If you ask me…
ถ้าคุณถามผม/ฉัน…


I’d like to say something about…
ผม/ฉันอยากจะพูดอะไรบางอย่างเกี่ยวกับเรื่องนี้…


I’d like to say a couple of words about this…
ผม/ฉันอยากจะพูดอะไรเล็กน้อยเกี่ยวกับเรื่องนี้…


Downloads: Thai Language Filler Connectors…

Thai Language Filler Connectors (with transliteration): Pdf 328kb
Thai Language Filler Connectors (without transliteration): Pdf 328kb
Thai Language Filler Connectors: Audio (Male) 1.3mg
Thai Language Filler Connectors: Audio (Female) 1.2mg
Thai Language Filler Connectors: Audio (Female-singles) 1mg

Note: These files are for personal use only (please do not place them on other websites).

More Thai Language Connectors…

Following will be: Apologising Connectors, Qualifying Connectors, Agreeing and Disagreeing Connectors, Elaborating Connectors, Quoting Connectors, Switching Connectors, Closing Connectors and Passing Connectors (in that order).

Cheers! Catherine & Yuki

Yuki Tachaya, Web: PickupThai | YouTube: PickupThai | twitter: @PickupThai

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Picnicly: These Foreigners Love Thai (Language)

Picnicly

These foreigners love Thai…

After studying languages on and off for the majority of my life, I’ve started to develop some theories as to what works and what doesn’t work. Thing is, I’m not an education expect, so it’s really all just guesses as to what’s best. A sample size of one doesn’t make a full research project.

Last week I got together three friends who all speak Thai fluently and asked them about their own tricks and techniques. It really interested me to find out that they all have different approaches, different ways to get to the same destination. The only thing I really found in common was an initial total immersion period of around a year where they didn’t socialize with people from their own country. Where they forced themselves to speak only Thai.

One other common factor is that everyone was motivated to learn Thai, they all really wanted to understand their adoptive homes through its language as much as possible.

After watching, I’d love to hear what you all think. My “research” still has a very small sample size, so let me know what works for you and what doesn’t.

Thanks!
Luke Cassady-Dorion
Picnicly (no longer online)

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Thai Language Connectors: Opening Connectors

Thai Language Connectors

Opening Connectors for Thai learners…

As mentioned in the first post of the series, Thai Language Connectors: Starter Pack, Opening Connectors are responses to questions – they give you breathing time to mentally form answers.

Anthony Lauder: When you are asked a question, it can put you on the spot. Your mind can go blank, and soon you don’t know how to even start answering. Opening connectors are really useful for getting the first few words out of your mouth (“breaking the silence”) while you settle down to give the real answer to the question

Included in Anthony’s 100 Language Connectors mentioned in his Starter Pack there were four Opening Connectors: “Thank you heartily”, “That is such a good question”, “That is a difficult question”, and “Once upon a time, long ago…”. In this post we’ll complete the set from his spreadsheet.

Notes: 1) The target audience is educated Thais (for the most part), with the materials being slightly formal in scope. And 2) an * before the phrase means there is no equivalent expression in Thai but it sounds more or less ok anyway. And 3) please don’t freak out, there’s a pdf with transliteration.

Opening Connectors for Thai learners…

I must first say that…
ก่อนอื่น ผม/ฉันต้องบอกก่อนว่า…


I will be talking for about ten minutes.
ผม/ฉันจะใช้เวลาพูดประมาณสิบนาที


I’ll start with… and afterwards move on to…
ผม/ฉันจะเริ่มจาก… จากนั้นก็จะพูดถึง…


The reason why I am here is…
เหตุผลที่ผม/ฉันมาพูดให้คุณฟังวันนี้ก็คือ…

Note: Literal meaning: “The reason why I came to speak to you today is…”


Today we shall look at…
วันนี้ เราจะมาดูเรื่อง…


Today’s topic is…
หัวข้อที่เราจะคุยกันวันนี้คือ…


Today I will be talking about…
วันนี้ ผม/ฉันจะมาพูดเกี่ยวกับ…


I know that there isn’t time to spare, so I’d better make a start.
ผม/ฉันรู้ว่าเรามีเวลาไม่มาก เพราะฉะนั้นผม/ฉันขอเริ่มเลยก็แล้วกัน


I’d like to start with a general overview and after focus on…
ขอเริ่มพูดถึงภาพรวมคร่าวๆก่อนแล้วค่อยเจาะลึกรายละเอียด…

Note: Literal meaning: “Let me start with an rough overview and then, go into the details later.”


Downloads: Thai Language Opening Connectors…

Thai Language Opening Connectors (with transliteration): Pdf 395kb
Thai Language Opening Connectors (without transliteration): Pdf 395kb
Thai Language Opening Connectors: Audio (Male) 848kb
Thai Language Opening Connectors: Audio (Female) 686kb
Thai Language Opening Connectors: Audio (Female-singles) 603kb

Note: These files are for personal use only (please do not place them on other websites).

More Thai Language Connectors…

Following will be: Filler Connectors, Apologising Connectors, Qualifying Connectors, Agreeing and Disagreeing Connectors, Elaborating Connectors, Quoting Connectors, Switching Connectors, Closing Connectors and Passing Connectors (in that order).

Cheers! Catherine & Yuki

Yuki Tachaya, Web: PickupThai | YouTube: PickupThai | twitter: @PickupThai

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